List of Chemical compounds- their common name, formula and uses


The given below table consists of the common names of important chemical compounds, their chemical formula and uses. The list has been prepared after a thorough analysis of previous year papers in which questions related to this topic were asked. This list is very helpful for the candidates preparing for various government exams like SSC CGL, State PCS, SSC CHSL, RRB NTPC, SSC CPO, RRB JE, SSC JE, etc. Read this study material and boost your preparation for the General Awareness section.

Common Name

Chemical Compounds/Elements

Chemical Formula

Uses

Baking Soda

Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate or Sodium bicarbonate

NaHCO3

It is used as an ingredient in baking.

Antiformin/ Bleach/ Chloride of Soda

Sodium hypochlorite

NaOCI/NaClO

It is used on a large scale for surface purification, bleaching, odour removal and water disinfection.

Bleaching Powder

Calcium Oxychloride

CaOCl2

It is used as a bleaching agent and disinfectant.

Blue Vitriol

Copper Sulphate

CuSO4.xH2O

It is used to control

fungus and algae.

Borax

Sodium tetraborate decahydrate/ Sodium Borate

Na2[B4O5(OH)4].8H2O

It is used in laundry detergent.

Calomel

Mercurous chloride

Hg2CI2

It is used  as a fungicide, and formerly in medicine as a purgative.

Carbolic Acid/ Hydroxybenzene/ Phenic Acid

Phenol

C6H5OH

It is used as a disinfectant in household cleaners.

Carborundum

Silicon carbide

SiC

It is used  in automotive brakes and clutches.

Caustic potash

Potassium hydroxide

KOH

It is used in liquid fertilizers, potassium soaps and detergents.

Chile Saltpetre

Sodium Nitrate

NaNO3

It is used for making high-strength glasses, fertilizers and explosives.

Chloroform

Trichloromethane

CHCI3

It is used as a solvent for lacquer, floor polishes and resins.

Cream of tartar

Potassium hydrogen tartrate/ potassium bitartrate

KC4H5O6

It is used in bakery to stabilize egg whites.

Dolomite

Calcium magnesium carbonate

CaMg(CO3)2

It is used as an ingredient in the production of glass, bricks, and ceramics.

Dry Ice

Solid carbon dioxide

CO2

It is used to preserve food.

Epsom salt

Magnesium sulphate heptahydrate

MgSO4.7H2O

It is known to relieve pain and inflammation.

Freon-12/CFC-12

Dichlorodifluoromethane

CCl2F2

It is used as a refrigerant in refrigerators and air conditioners.

Galena

Lead (ll) sulphide

PbS

It is also used in a green glaze applied to pottery.

Glauber’s Salt

Sodium sulphate decahydrate

Na2 SO4.10H2O

It is used in medicine and as a dyeing agent.

Glycerol

Propane-1,2,3-triol

C3H8O3

It is used in food and skin care industry.

Green Vitriol

Ferrous sulphate heptahydrate

FeSO4. 7H2O

It is used in sewage and water treatment, and as a pigment, fertilizer.

Gypsum

Calcium sulphate dihydrate

CaSO4.2H2O

It is used to manufacture dry wall.

Heavy water

Deuterium Oxide

D2O

It is used in nuclear reactors, as a neutron moderator.

Hypo Solution

Sodium Thiosulphate pentahydrate

Na2S2O3.5H2O

It is used for both film and photographic paper processing.

Hematite

Iron (lll) Oxide/ Ferric Oxide

Fe2O3

It is used to produce pigments, preparations for heavy media separation, radiation shielding etc.

Laughing gas

Dinitrogen monoxide / Nitrous Oxide

N2O

It is used by dentist.

Quick Lime/ Burnt Lime

Calcium Oxide

CaO

It is used in production of iron and steel, paper and pulp and in treatment of water.

Slaked Lime

Calcium Hydroxide

Ca(OH)2

It is used in mortars, plasters, and cements.

Limestone

Calcium carbonate

CaCO3

It is used as a building material.

Litharge(Red) and Massicot (Yellow)

Lead (ll) Oxide/ Lead Monoxide

PbO

It is used in the manufacture of Lead Stabilizers pottery, Lead glass, paints, enamels, and inks.

Lye/ Caustic soda

Sodium hydroxide

NaOH

It is used in manufacture of pulp and paper, alumina, soap and detergents.

Marsh Gas

Methane

CH4

It is poisonous gas mainly found in mines.

Methyl ethyl ketone/ Butanone

Butan-2-one

C4H8O

It is mainly used in paint formation.

Milk of magnesia

Magnesium hydroxide

Mg(OH)2

It is used as an antacid to relieve indigestion, sour stomach, and heartburn.

Mohr’s Salt

Ammonium iron (II) sulphate

(NH4)2Fe(SO4)2 · 6H2O

It is used to increase the shelf life of iron and reduce oxidation.

Aqua Fortis/ Spirit of Niter

Nitric acid

HNO3

It is used for production of explosives, and fertilizers.

Muriatic acid

Hydrochloric acid

HCI

It is used as a food additive,

and in gelatin production, Leather processing, etc.

Oil of Vitriol

Sulphuric acid

H2SO4

It is use for making fertilizer.

Wintergreen oil

Methyl salicylate

C8H8O3

It is used in traditional medicine for the

bacterial infections.

Phosgene

Carbonyl dichloride

COCl2

It is used to make plastics and pesticides.

Plaster of Paris

Calcium sulphate hemihydrate

CaSO4.1/2H2O

It is used as a protective coating on walls and ceilings.

Potash Alum/Potassium Alum

Potassium aluminium sulphate dodecahydrate


 KAl(SO4)2·12H2O

 

It is commonly used in water purification, leather tanning, dyeing.

Rochelle Salt

Potassium sodium tartrate

KNaC4H4O6.4H2O

It is used in manufacturing of pectins and gelatines.

Quartz

Silicon dioxide (Silica)

SiO2

It is used as oscillators in radios, watches.

QuickSilver

Mercury

Hg

It is  used in thermometers, thermostats, barometers

Table Salt/Common Salt

Sodium chloride

NaCI

It is commonly used as a condiment and food preservative.

2-propanol/Propan-2-ol

Isopropyl alcohol

(CH3)2CHOH

It is used to treat tremors, chest pain, hypertension, heart rhythm disorders, and other heart or circulatory conditions.

Sal ammoniac

Ammonium chloride

NH4CI

It is used as cleaning agent in several industrial processes.

Saltpetre

Potassium nitrate

KNO3

It is used as a common food preservative.

Slaked Lime

Calcium hydroxide

Ca(OH)2

It is used to form mortars, plasters, and cements.

TNT

Trinitrotoluene

C6H2(NO2)3CH3

It is used in used in military shells, bombs, and grenades.

Vermilion/ Cinnabar

Mercuric sulphide

HgS

It is used as a pigment, and carve it into jewelry and ornaments.

Washing Soda

Sodium carbonate decahydrate

Na2CO3. 10H2O

It is used in  commercial detergent mixtures to treat hard water.

White Vitriol

Zinc Sulphate

ZnSO4.7H2O

It is used for preserving skins and wood.

 

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