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Teaching is not only a profession but art to nurture a child that shapes the future of a nation. Teaching job provides a social connect for the teachers and helps them to give back something to society. The official duty of a teacher goes beyond formal teaching as they not only provide knowledge to the students but also impart values to help them become good human beings. Therefore, a teacher should be competent in terms of knowledge, teamwork, interaction with students, skills and pedagogy, etc.
Teaching as a profession in government and private schools and colleges is a widely chosen career. Let’s have a look at the teaching entrance exams held in India.
A person who wants to pursue his/her career as a teaching professional for Classes I to VIII should qualify TET in which two papers are held: Paper-1 for Classes I-V and Paper-2 for Classes VI-VIII.
TET is conducted by the Central government as the Central Teacher Eligibility Test (CTET), while some of the state governments conduct their own exams as State Teacher Eligibility Test (STET).
Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) has been given the responsibility to conduct the CTET exam. The CTET qualified candidate becomes eligible for applying to teaching jobs up to Class VIII in Kendriya Vidyalayas (KVS), Navodaya Vidyalayas (NVS), and other schools owned or aided by the Central government and UTs. Unaided private schools may also opt for considering CTET as an eligibility criterion.
STET is optional for the states, some of the states that conduct their own TET are Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab, etc. STET qualified candidates become eligible to apply for teaching jobs in the state government-owned schools.
Uttar Pradesh Exam Regulatory Authority conducts the UPTET exam. The authority conducts the exam in two shifts- Paper-I –Classes I-V and Paper-II- Classes VI-VIII. The qualified candidates' certificate is valid for seven years within which he/she can apply for recruitment as Teacher for Classes up to VIII.
HPTET is conducted by the Himachal Pradesh Board of School Education for providing eligibility to become TGT in subjects like Arts, Non-Medical, Medical, Shastri, Language Teacher(Hindi/Urdu/Punjabi), Junior Basic Training, Punjabi, and Urdu Subjects. The exam pattern for all the subjects is the same. HPTET qualifying certificate is valid for 7 years.
HTET is conducted by Board of School Education Haryana (BSEH) for all the three levels: Level-1- PRT, Level-2- TGT, and Level-3- PGT. HTET qualifying certificate is valid for 5 years.
APTET is conducted by Commissionerate of School, Andhra Pradesh, for determining the eligibility for teachers up to class VIII. There are two papers: Paper-I for teaching Classes I-V and Paper-II for teaching Classes VI-VIII. APTET qualifying certificate is valid for 7 years.
BTET exam is conducted by Bihar School Education Board (BSEB) as the minimum qualification to apply for the teaching entrance exams up to class VIII. The exam is held separately: Paper-I for Classes I-V and Paper –II for Classes VI-VIII.
The exam for Teaching jobs is conducted for three levels:
1. PRT (Primary Teacher): up to class V
2. TGT (Trained Graduate Teacher): up to Class X
3. PGT (Post Graduate Teacher): up to Class XII
Various Sangathan and boards like Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan, Army Welfare Education Society, Secondary education service selection board, etc. conduct recruitment exams for PRT, TGT and PGT from time to time. CTET and STET qualified candidates can apply for these posts.
CBSE on behalf of University Grants Commission (UGC) conducted NET till June 2018, after qualifying which the candidate can apply for the post of Assistant professor only or Junior Research Fellowship (JRF) & Assistant Professor both in Indian Universities and colleges. Now, UGC-NET is being conducted by the National Testing Agency (NTA). UGC-NET is held twice a year, i.e., in June and December.
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) holds the Joint CSIR-UGC Test for awarding Junior Research Fellowship (JRF) and determining the eligibility for Lectureship in subjects related to Science and Technology.
Similarly, some state governments or UTs like Karnataka, Telangana, Madhya Pradesh, Chandigarh, etc. conduct their own state-level eligibility test for lectureship eligibility in State colleges and universities. Such states or UTs have to obtain UGC accreditation to conduct such an exam.
It must be emphasized that while clearance of each of these exams enables qualifying candidates to apply to relevant Government and Private School teaching jobs at each level, their clearance will not guarantee final selection or employment in every teaching role applied for. Selection for each specific teaching job is dependent upon several variables, including individual personality, aptitude as well as individual demands of the job, and clearance of the right exam is just one step on the journey.
The role of a teacher is a multifaceted one, and in the process of preparing and clearing these entrance exams, candidates hone and refine their abilities at several levels, as well as win the respect of their community, which augurs well for a highly fulfilling and rewarding teaching career.