List of Agricultural Revolutions in India


Different types of revolutions in agriculture have led to remarkable growth in the production of agriculture, milk, fish, oilseeds, and fruits, and vegetables in India. These revolutions have played role in bringing prosperity to farmers and ensuring the welfare of the people of India.

This article provides a list of almost all types of agriculture revolutions and a description of some of them.

Types of Revolutions in Agriculture

There are various types of agricultural revolutions as given below:

1. Green Revolution in India

Green revolution refers to increased food grain production as a consequence of the introduction of high yielding varieties of wheat as well as of rice and use of fertilizers, modern machines and irrigation.

Chidambaram Subramaniam has been referred to as the Political Father of Green Revolution or Political Architect of Green Revolution in India. He was Minister for Food and Agriculture at the time of green revolution in India.

Green Revolution started in India during the fourth five year plan.

Dilbagh Singh Athwal is known as the Father of Wheat Revolution.

NOTE:

  • Dr. William S. Gaud coined the term Green Revolution in agriculture.
  • Dr. Norman Borlaug is known as father of Green Revolution.
  • Dr. M S Swaminathan is known as the father of Green Revolution in India.

2. White Revolution in India

Operation Flood is commonly referred to as white revolution. The world's largest dairy development programme, Operation Flood, began on January 13, 1970.

It was a landmark project of India's National Dairy Development Board (NDDB), a statutory body with headquarters in Anand, Gujarat.

It helped India transition from a milk-deficient country to the world's largest milk producer, surpassing the United States of America in 1998 and accounting for approximately 22.29 % of global output in 2018.

Note: Dr. Verghese Kurien is known as father of White Revolution in India.   

3. Yellow Revolution in India

The term yellow revolution refers to the increase in oilseed production (especially mustard and sesame seeds) in India, which started in 1986.

Technological Mission on Oilseeds was launched in 1986 in India to achieve self-sufficiency in edible oils. India used to import one billion dollars of cooking oils every year although a large tract of land in India was suitable for growing oilseeds. This mission on oil led to the increase in the export of oil cakes.

National Mission on Oilseeds and Palm Oil was implemented by the government during the 12th five-year plan. It aims to increase the production of edible oils.

Currently, India is one of the major oilseeds growers and importers of edible oils. India’s vegetable oil economy is the world’s fourth-largest after USA, China & Brazil.

The majority of demand for edible oil in India is met through the import of palm oil from Indonesia and Malaysia.

In August 2021, PM Modi approved the launch of a new Mission on Oil palm called National Mission on Edible Oils-Oil Palm (NMEO-OP) as centrally sponsored scheme.

Note: Sam Pitroda is known as the father of Yellow Revolution in India 

4. Blue Revolution in India

It is also known as Neel Kranti mission. It refers to the growth of aquaculture production. Aquaculture includes all forms of active culturing of aquatic animals and plants, occurring in marine, brackish, or fresh waters. It was launched in India during the seventh five year plan (1985-1990) when the government-sponsored the Fish Farmers Development Agency.

The main objective of this scheme was to promote fishing as an important activity to double the income of the farmers.

The Blue Revolution was started in China. It accounts for 2/3rd of the total aquaculture production by weight. China has been the main exporter of fish and fish products since 2002 followed by Norway.

India is the second-largest producer of fisheries in the world. Fisheries sector contribute 1% of overall GDP.

As per FAO, 2018’s top captured fish producers are China, Indonesia, Peru, India, Russia, USA and Vietnam.

Blue Revolution 2.0 was launched in 2014 that focuses on the development and management of fisheries. It will also expand the activities of the National Fisheries Development Board.

Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana was also launched by the government in its Union Budget 2019-20.

Note: Dr. Arun Krishnan and Hiralal Chaudhari are known as father of Blue Revolution in India.

5. Golden Fiber Revolution in India

Golden fibre revolution is related to Jute production. Silver fibre revolution is related to Cotton production.

Being a cash crop, Jute is called Golden fibre due to its color and high value in monetary terms. India is the world’s biggest producer of jute followed by Bangladesh. About 95% of the world’s jute is grown in India and Bangladesh. West Bengal is the major producer of Jute in India.

Jute has various uses as the outer layer of the stem is used in the production of the fibre, the inner woody stem is used to manufacture paper, and the roots, remaining part left after harvest, helps in improving the yield of next crops like rice.

Jute seeds are sown in April-May and harvested in July-August. It is a rain-fed crop. It is 100% biodegradable and recyclable.

Obsolete processing technology and lack of product diversification are the two major challenges in the jute industry in India.

6. Silver Revolution in India

It refers to growth of egg production in India through advanced technologies for efficient poultry farming especially in rural India.

Note: Indira Gandhi is known as mother of Silver Revolution in India 

7. Golden Revolution in India

The period of the Golden Revolution in India lies between 1991 to 2003. It focused on production of honey, fruits and vegetables.

National Beekeeping and Honey Mission is a central sector scheme launched in 2020 for the overall promotion and development of scientific beekeeping to achieve “Sweet Revolution” in India. Sweet Revolution refers to promoting apiculture to increase the production of quality honey and other related products like royal jelly, beeswax, pollens, etc.

India is the sixth major natural honey exporting country. During 2019–20, 59,536.75 MT of natural honey was exported. The major export destinations were USA, Saudi Arab, Canada, and Qatar.

Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH) is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme being implemented from 2014-15 for the holistic growth of the horticulture sector covering fruits, vegetables, root & tuber crops, mushrooms, spices, flowers, aromatic plants, coconut, cashew, cocoa and bamboo. With the implementation of this mission the area under horticulture crops has increased. Area and production during the years 2014 – 15 to 2019 – 20 has increased by 9% and 14% respectively.

National Horticulture Mission was launched by the government in 2005-06 to increase the production of fruits and vegetables. It is a sub-scheme of MIDH.

During the year 2019-20, India has recorded its highest ever horticulture production of 320.77 million tonnes from an area of 25.66 million hectares.

High post-harvest loss and gaps in post-harvest management and supply chain infrastructure are some of the challenges being faced by horticulture sector.

Note:

Nirpakh Tutaj is known as father of Gold Revolution in India.

Dr. K L Chadha is referred to as Father of Modern Horticulture.

8. Pink Revolution in India

Pink revolution primarily referred as for onion, prawns and pharmaceuticals, but the 2nd generation pink revolution focuses on modernisation of meat and poultry.

India exports meat to Vietnam, Malaysia, Thailand, UAE, Saudi Arabia and Egypt.

Lack of infrastructure facilities for value addition, small farms, lack of standards are some challenges that are being faced by the poultry sector in India.

Note: Durgesh Patel is known as the father of Pink Revolution in India 

9. Red Revolution in India

Red Revolution refers to meat or tomato production.

Tomato ranks third in priority after Potato and Onion in India but ranks second after potato in the world. India ranks second in terms of area under tomato cultivation as well as production of Tomato. Andhra Pradesh is the highest producer of tomatoes in India. China is the highest producer of tomatoes in the world.

In fiscal year 2021, the volume of tomato production in India is estimated to have amounted to 21 million metric tons.

Note: Vishal Tewari is known as the father of Red Revolution in India.  

10. Saffron Revolution in India

In 2014, PM Modi while launching the Welspun Solar MP project (130 MW), the largest solar power plant in India that will supply power at Rs. 8.05 a kWh called it a saffron revolution. He referred to the harnessing of solar energy.

11. List of major Agricultural Revolutions in India

REVOLUTION

PRODUCTS

Grey Revolution

Fertilizers

Pink Revolution

Onion Production / Prawn Production/Pharmaceutical/ Modernisation of Poultry and Meat Processing sector

Green Revolution

Food Grains

Round Revolution

Potato Production

Blue Revolution/ Neel Kranti

Fish Production

White Revolution

Milk Production

Yellow Revolution

Oilseed Production

Red Revolution

Meat Production/Tomato Production

Golden Fiber Revolution

Jute Production

Brown Revolution

Leather / Cocoa / Non-Conventional Energy

Silver Revolution

Egg Production / Poultry Production

Golden Revolution

Fruits / Honey Production / Horticulture Development

Silver Fiber Revolution

Cotton

Evergreen Revolution

Overall Production of Agriculture

Almond Revolution

Spice production

Saffron Revolution

Solar Energy

Black Revolution

Petroleum Production

Sweet Revolution/ Mithi Kranti

Promoting beekeeping- Honey production

Purple Revolution Lavender Production

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about Agricultural Revolutions in India

Who coined the term Green Revolution in agriculture?

Dr. William S. Gaud coined the term Green Revolution in agriculture.

Who is known as father of Green Revolution?

Dr. Norman Borlaug is known as father of Green Revolution.

Who is known as father of Green Revolution in India?

Dr. M S Swaminathan is known as father of Green Revolution in India.

When was world's largest dairy development programme, Operation Flood, started?

World's largest dairy development programme, Operation Flood, began on January 13, 1970.

Who is known as father of White Revolution in India?

Dr. Verghese Kurien is known as father of White Revolution in India.

Which revolution is related to increase in oilseed production in India?

Yellow revolution is related to increase in oilseed production in India.

Golden fibre revolution refers to production of which fibre?

Golden fibre revolution refers to Jute production.

Round revolution is related to production of which crop?

Round revolution is related to production of potato crop.

Which revolution is related to egg production?

Silver revolution is related to egg production.

Silver fibre revolution refers to production of which fibre?

Silver fibre revolution refers to production of cotton fibre.

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