Vitamins and Minerals - Chemical Name, Deficiency Diseases and Sources

Vitamins and Minerals are essential for the human body. These are required in appropriate quantities in the body to function properly; otherwise, the deficiency may lead to various defects/diseases. Read the complete list of Vitamins and minerals along with their deficiency diseases and sources.

Vitamins are organic substances that we require in adequate quantities for good health. The human body cannot synthesize vitamins; therefore, various food sources need to be consumed to fulfil the requirement.

Vitamins are fat soluble (Vitamins A, D, E, and K) and water soluble (Vitamin B and C).

Minerals are the nutrients that are important for proper growth and functioning of our body and are required in small amounts. Vitamins and Minerals are the micronutrients i.e. these are required in smaller amounts.


Vitamin/Minerals and their Chemical names

Deficiency Diseases


Vitamin A (Retinol)

Night Blindness, Irregular

growth of


Green leafy Vegetables, Guava, Milk, Nuts, etc.

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)


Fresh Fruits, Potatoes, Peas, Corn, fish, etc.

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

Skin diseases, retarded


Banana, Almonds, Mushrooms, Grapes, Spinach, etc.

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

Pellagra (affects

skin, alimentary

canal and nervous


Whole cereals, tomatoes, potatoes, meat and fish

Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)


Egg, Yogurt, Liver, Fish, etc.

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

Scurvy (Gums swell and bleed)

Broccoli, Goat Milk, Winter squash, Fresh fruits, etc.

Vitamin D (Calciferol)


Fish, Egg, Liver oil, Chicken breast, Cheese, etc.

Vitamin K (Phylloquinone)

Excessive bleeding due to injury

Tomatoes, Broccoli, Chestnuts, cauliflower, Grapes, etc.

Vitamin E (Tocopherols)

Nerve and Muscle damage, Less fertility

Nuts, Pumpkin, Sunflower seeds, Milk, Nuts, etc.


Brittle Bones and excessive bleeding, Defective teeth

Cheese, Milk, egg, okra, Dates, cereals, etc.


Bad teeth and bones

Passion fruits, pomengranate, beans, beef, nuts, fish, etc.



Cashews, Beans, Spinach,

Baked Potatoes, etc.


Goitre, enlarged thyroid gland

Fish, yogurt, breads, cereals, seafood, etc.


Low appetite, retarded growth

Fish, beans, mushrooms, dark chocolate, potatoes, etc.


Nervous disorder; poor muscle control leading to paralysis

Vegetables, molasses, banana, dates, etc.


Heart and vascular irregularities; dilated blood vessels, loss of muscle coordination

Green leafy vegetables, soyabean, whole grain, etc.



Vomiting and hypochloremic alkalosis


Common salt





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