Vitamins and Minerals - Chemical Name, Deficiency Diseases and Sources


Vitamins and Minerals are essential for the human body. These are required in appropriate quantities in the body to function properly; otherwise, the deficiency may lead to various defects/diseases. Read the complete list of Vitamins and minerals along with their deficiency diseases and sources.

Vitamins are organic substances that we require in adequate quantities for good health. The human body cannot synthesize vitamins; therefore, various food sources need to be consumed to fulfil the requirement.

Vitamins are fat soluble (Vitamins A, D, E, and K) and water soluble (Vitamin B and C).

Minerals are the nutrients that are important for proper growth and functioning of our body and are required in small amounts. Vitamins and Minerals are the micronutrients i.e. these are required in smaller amounts.

 

Vitamin/Minerals and their Chemical names

Deficiency Diseases

Sources

Vitamin A (Retinol)

Night Blindness, Irregular

growth of

teeth

Green leafy Vegetables, Guava, Milk, Nuts, etc.

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)

Beri-Beri

Fresh Fruits, Potatoes, Peas, Corn, fish, etc.

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

Skin diseases, retarded

growth

Banana, Almonds, Mushrooms, Grapes, Spinach, etc.

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

Pellagra (affects

skin, alimentary

canal and nervous

system)

Whole cereals, tomatoes, potatoes, meat and fish

Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)

Anaemia

Egg, Yogurt, Liver, Fish, etc.

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

Scurvy (Gums swell and bleed)

Broccoli, Goat Milk, Winter squash, Fresh fruits, etc.

Vitamin D (Calciferol)

Rickets

Fish, Egg, Liver oil, Chicken breast, Cheese, etc.

Vitamin K (Phylloquinone)

Excessive bleeding due to injury

Tomatoes, Broccoli, Chestnuts, cauliflower, Grapes, etc.

Vitamin E (Tocopherols)

Nerve and Muscle damage, Less fertility

Nuts, Pumpkin, Sunflower seeds, Milk, Nuts, etc.

Calcium

Brittle Bones and excessive bleeding, Defective teeth

Cheese, Milk, egg, okra, Dates, cereals, etc.

Phosphorus

Bad teeth and bones

Passion fruits, pomengranate, beans, beef, nuts, fish, etc.

Iron

Anaemia

Cashews, Beans, Spinach,

Baked Potatoes, etc.

Iodine

Goitre, enlarged thyroid gland

Fish, yogurt, breads, cereals, seafood, etc.

Copper

Low appetite, retarded growth

Fish, beans, mushrooms, dark chocolate, potatoes, etc.

Potassium

Nervous disorder; poor muscle control leading to paralysis

Vegetables, molasses, banana, dates, etc.

Magnesium

Heart and vascular irregularities; dilated blood vessels, loss of muscle coordination

Green leafy vegetables, soyabean, whole grain, etc.

 

Chlorine

Vomiting and hypochloremic alkalosis

 

Common salt

 

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