Mineral and Power Resources Class 8 Notes NCERT and MCQs

23-03-2024 15:12 PM IST Priyanka Chaudhary

This chapter discusses the types of minerals and power resources, their use and distribution.


A naturally occurring substance that has a definite chemical composition is a mineral.

Minerals are formed in different types of geological environments, under varying conditions. They are created by natural processes without any human interference.

They can be identified on the basis of their physical properties such as colour, density, hardness and chemical property such as solubility.

Types of minerals

Metallic minerals – Metallic minerals contain metal in raw form.

Metals are hard substances that conduct heat and electricity and have a characteristic luster or shine. E.g., Iron ore, bauxite, manganese ore.

Ferrous minerals like iron ore, manganese and chromites contain iron.

Non-ferrous mineral does not contain iron but may contain some other metal such as gold, silver, copper or lead.

Non-metallic minerals – Non-metallic minerals do not contain metals. Limestone, mica and gypsum are examples of such minerals. The mineral fuels like coal and petroleum are also non-metallic minerals.

Process of extraction of minerals

Mining – The process of taking out minerals from rocks buried under the earth’s surface is called mining.

  • Minerals that lie at shallow depths are taken out by removing the surface layer; this is known as open-cast mining.
  • Deep bores, called shafts, have to be made to reach mineral deposits that lie at great depths. This is called shaft mining.

Process of Extraction of Minerals

Drilling – Petroleum and natural gas occur far below the earth’s surface. Deep wells are bored to take them out, this is called drilling.

Quarrying – Minerals that lie near the surface are simply dug out, by the process known as quarrying.

Distribution of minerals

  • Minerals occur in different types of rocks. Generally, metallic minerals are found in igneous and metamorphic rock formations that form large plateaus.
  • Iron-ore in north Sweden, copper and nickel deposits in Ontario, Canada, iron, nickel, chromites and platinum in South Africa are examples of minerals found in igneous and metamorphic rocks.
  • Sedimentary rock formations of plains and young fold mountains contain non-metallic minerals like limestone.
  • Limestone deposits of Caucasus region of France, manganese deposits of Georgia and Ukraine and phosphate beds of Algeria are some examples. Mineral fuels such as coal and petroleum are also found in the sedimentary strata.

Distribution of Mineral oil and Coal in world

Fig: Distribution of Mineral oil and coal in world


  • China and India have large iron ore deposits.
  • The continent produces more than half of the world’s tin. China, Malaysia and Indonesia are among the world’s leading tin producers.
  • China also leads in production of lead, antimony and tungsten.
  • Asia has deposits of manganese, bauxite, nickel, zinc and copper.


  • Europe is the leading producer of iron-ore in the world. The countries with large deposits of iron ore are Russia, Ukraine, Sweden and France.
  • Minerals deposits of copper, lead, zinc, manganese and nickel are found in eastern Europe and European Russia.
  • Switzerland has no known mineral deposit in it.

North America

  • The mineral deposits in North America are located in three zones: the Canadian region north of the Great Lakes, the Appalachian region and the mountain ranges of the west.
  • Iron ore, nickel, gold, uranium and copper are mined in the Canadian Shield Region, coal in the Appalachians region. Western Cordilleras have vast deposits of copper, lead, zinc, gold and silver.

South America

  • Brazil is the largest producer of high-grade iron-ore in the world. Chile and Peru are leading producers of copper.
  • Brazil and Bolivia are among the world’s largest producers of tin.
  • South America also has large deposits of gold, silver, zinc, chromium, manganese, bauxite, mica, platinum, asbestos and diamond.
  • Mineral oil is found in Venezuela, Argentina, Chile, Peru and Columbia.


  • Africa is rich in mineral resources. It is the world’s largest producer of diamonds, gold and platinum.
  • South Africa, Zimbabwe and Zaire produce a large portion of the world’s gold.
  • The other minerals found in Africa are copper, iron ore, chromium, uranium, cobalt and bauxite.
  • Oil is found in Nigeria, Libya and Angola.


  • Australia is the largest producer of bauxite in the world.
  • It is a leading producer of gold, diamond, iron ore, tin and nickel. It is also rich in copper, lead, zinc and manganese.
  • Kalgoorlie and Coolgardie areas of western Australia have the largest deposits of gold.
  • The oldest rocks in the world are in Western Australia. They date from 4,300 million years ago, only 300 million years after the earth was formed.


  • Significant size of deposits of coal in the Transantarctic Mountains and iron near the Prince Charles Mountains of East Antarctica is forecasted.
  • Iron ore, gold, silver and oil are also present in commercial quantities.

Uses of minerals

  • Minerals are used in many industries like for gems and jewellery.
  • Copper is another metal used in everything from coins to pipes.
  • Silicon, used in the computer industry is obtained from quartz.
  • Aluminum obtained from its ore bauxite is used in automobiles and airplanes, bottling industry, buildings and even in kitchen cookware.

Conservation of minerals

Minerals are a non-renewable resource. The rate of formation is much smaller than the rate at which humans consume these minerals.

It is necessary to reduce wastage in the process of mining. Recycling of metals is another way in which the mineral resources can be conserved.

Power resources

Conventional Sources

Conventional sources of energy are those which have been in common use for a long time.


It is widely used for cooking and heating. In our country more than fifty per cent of the energy used by villagers comes from fire wood.

Advantages of Firewood

Disadvantages of Firewood

Easy Access

Collection is time consuming

Provide energy to a large number of people


Promote greenhouse effect



  • Petroleum and its derivatives are called Black Gold as they are very valuable.
  • It is found between the layers of rocks and is drilled from oil fields located in off-shore and coastal areas.
  • This is then sent to refineries which process the crude oil and produce a variety of products like diesel, petrol, kerosene, wax, plastics and lubricants.
  • The chief petroleum producing countries are Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Qatar. The other major producers are USA, Russia, Venezuela, and Algeria.
  • The leading producers in India are Digboi in Assam, Bombay High in Mumbai and the deltas of Krishna and Godavari rivers.

Advantages of Petroleum

Disadvantages of Petroleum

Easier to transport

Depletion of oxygen due to oil spillage

Basis of petrochemical industry

Pollutants released cause acid rain

Exploration of new fuel is not easy

Natural Gas

  • Natural gas is found with petroleum deposits and is released when crude oil is brought to the surface. It can be used as a domestic and industrial fuel.
  • Russia, Norway, UK and the Netherlands are the major producers of natural gas.
  • In India Jaisalmer, Krishna Godavari delta, Tripura and some areas off shore in Mumbai have natural gas resources.
  • Compressed natural gas (CNG) is a popular eco-friendly automobile fuel as it causes less pollution than petroleum and diesel.

Advantages of Natural Gas

Disadvantages of Natural Gas

Easier to transport

Depletion of oxygen due to oil spillage

Cleaner than oil and coal

Pollutants released cause acid rain

Cheaper than oil and coal

Exploration of new fuel is not easy


  • This is the most abundantly found fossil fuel. It is used as a domestic fuel, in industries such as iron and steel, steam engines and to generate electricity.
  • Electricity from coal is called thermal power. Coal is referred to as Buried Sunshine.
  • The leading coal producers of the world are China, USA, Germany, Russia, South Africa and France.
  • The coal producing areas of India are Raniganj, Jharia, Dhanbad and Bokaro in Jharkhand.

Advantages of Coal

Disadvantages of Coal

Extensively available

Polluting source

Efficient conversion to electricity

Bulky to transport

Hydel Power

  • This is the energy obtained from flowing water.
  • Rain water or river water stored in dams is made to fall from heights. The falling water flows through pipes inside the dam over turbine blades placed at the bottom of the dam.
  • The moving blades then turn the generator to produce electricity. This is called hydro-electricity.
  • The water discharged after the generation of electricity is used for irrigation.
  • One fourth of the world’s electricity is produced by hydel power.
  • The leading producers of hydel power in the world are Paraguay, Norway, Brazil, and China.
  • Some important hydel power stations in India are Bhakra Nangal, Gandhi Sagar, Nagarjunsagar and Damodar valley projects.
  • Norway was the first country in the world to develop hydroelectricity.

Advantages of Hydel Power

Disadvantages of Hydel Power


Displacement of local community

Promotes irrigation and fishing

Inundates low lying regions


Expensive to set-up

Non-Conventional Resources

Solar energy

  • Solar energy trapped from the sun can be used in solar cells to produce electricity. Many of these cells are joined into solar panels to generate power for heating and lighting purposes.
  • Solar energy is also used in solar heaters, solar cookers, solar dryers besides being used for community lighting and traffic signals.
  • The site of the world’s first solar and wind powered bus shelter is in Scotland.

Advantages of Solar energy

Disadvantages of Solar energy




Diffuse source so gets wasted

Wind energy

  • Wind is an inexhaustible source of energy.
  • The high-speed winds rotate the wind mill which is connected to a generator to produce electricity.
  • Wind farms having clusters of such wind mills are located in coastal regions and in mountain passes where strong and steady winds blow.
  • Windfarms are found in Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, UK, USA and Spain are noted for their wind energy production.

Advantages of Wind Energy

Disadvantages of Wind Energy


Noise pollution

Low cost of production of electricity once set up

Wind mills are costly to setup

Safe and clean

Disturbs radio and TV reception

Harmful to birds

Nuclear Power

  • Nuclear power is obtained from energy stored in the nuclei of atoms of naturally occurring radioactive elements like uranium and thorium.
  • These fuels undergo nuclear fission in nuclear reactors and emit power.
  • The greatest producers of nuclear power are USA and Europe.
  • In India Rajasthan and Jharkhand have large deposits of Uranium. Thorium is found in large quantities in the Monozite sands of Kerala.
  • The nuclear power stations in India are located in Kalpakkam in Tamil Nadu, Tarapur in Maharashtra, Ranapratap Sagar near Kota in Rajasthan, Narora in Uttar Pradesh and Kaiga in Karnataka.

Advantages of Nuclear Energy

Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy

Emits large amounts of energy

Generates radioactive waste


Geothermal energy

  • Heat energy obtained from the earth is called geothermal energy.
  • The temperature in the interior of the earth rises steadily as we go deeper. Sometimes this heat energy may surface itself in the form of hot springs. This heat energy can be used to generate power.
  • USA has the world’s largest geothermal power plants followed by New Zealand, Iceland, Philippines and Central America.
  • In India, geothermal plants are located in Manikaran in Himachal Pradesh and Puga Valley in Ladakh.

Advantage of Geothermal Energy

Disadvantage of Geothermal Energy

Clean, ecofriendly and always available

Located far away from the cities so electricity transportation is costly

Tidal energy

  • Energy generated from tides is called tidal energy. Tidal energy can be harnessed by building dams at narrow openings of the sea.
  • During high tide the energy of the tides is used to turn the turbine installed in the dam to produce electricity.
  • Russia, France and the Gulf of Kachchh in India have huge tidal mill farms.
  • The first tidal energy station was built in France.

Advantages of Tidal Energy

Disadvantages of Tidal Energy

Non polluting

Destroys wildlife habitat


Difficult to harness


  • Organic waste such as dead plant and animal material, animal dung and kitchen waste can be converted into a gaseous fuel called biogas.
  • The organic waste is decomposed by bacteria in biogas digesters to emit biogas which is essentially a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide.
  • Biogas is an excellent fuel for cooking and lighting and produces huge amount of organic manure each year.

Advantages of Biogas

Disadvantage of Biogas

Low cost

Causes greenhouse effect

Easy to operate

Makes use of biowaste

MCQs based on NCERT Class 8 Geography Chapter 3: Mineral and Power Resources

1. Which one of the following is NOT a characteristic of minerals?

(a) They are created by natural processes.

(b) They have a definite chemical composition.

(c) They are inexhaustible.

(d) Their distribution is uneven.

Ans. c

2. Which one of the following is NOT a producer of mica?

(a) Jharkhand 

(b) Karnataka

(c) Rajasthan

(d) Andhra Pradesh

Ans. b

3. Which one of the following is a leading producer of copper in the world?

(a) Bolivia

(b) Ghana

(c) Chile

(d) Zimbabwe

Ans. c

4. Which one of the following practices will NOT conserve LPG in your kitchen?

(a) Soaking the dal for some time before cooking it.

(b) Cooking food in a pressure cooker.

(c) Keeping the vegetables chopped before lighting the gas for cooking.

(d) Cooking food in an open pan kept on low flame.

Ans. d

5. Where was the first tidal energy station built?

(a) India

(b) Germany

(c) France

(d) Sweden

Ans. c

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about Mineral and Power Resources

What is a mineral?

A naturally occurring substance that has a definite chemical composition is a mineral.

Why most industries are concentrated around coal mine?

Coal is a heavy material which if transported to longer distances costs heavy to the various industries that is why most industries are concentrated around coal mine.

Why Petroleum is referred to as “Black gold”?

Petroleum is also referred to as “Black gold” because it is black in color when extracted and also its economic value is high.

What are the various methods of extraction of mineral?

Minerals can be extracted by mining, drilling or quarrying.

What are the examples of non-metallic minerals?

Limestone, mica and gypsum are examples of non-metallic minerals. Non-metallic minerals do not contain metals.


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