The Hindu Vocabulary 10 January 2023

2023-01-10

The vocabulary for The Hindu Editorial 10 January 2023 is from the Editorial titled ‘Time to count: On government’s delay in conducting census’.

Word/Phrase

Part of Speech/Idiom

Meaning

Synonyms

Antonyms

Example

Census

Noun

An official count of a population.

(जनगणना)

Count, Tale, Tally. Enumeration, Poll

-

The government has been delaying the census that was due in 2021.

Vital

Adjective

Absolutely necessary; essential.

(महत्वपूर्ण)

Essential, Indispensable, Crucial, Key, Necessary, Needed

Unimportant, Peripheral, Secondary, Optional, Discretionary

The two nations signed an MoU to share vital technology with each other.

Decennial

Decennially

Adjective/ Noun

Adverb

Adjective – For ten years.

Noun – A decennial anniversary.

(Adjective - दस वर्ष का

Adverb - दसवार्षिक रूप से)

Decimal, Decagonal, Decuple, Denary

-

The data has come from a decennial survey.

Overstate

Verb

To state too strongly.

(अतिरंजित करना/ अत्युक्ति करना)

Amplify, Emphasize, Heighten, Inflate

Compress, Contract, Decrease, Ignore

Why are you overstating the case to say that it was a matter of life and death?

Demography

Noun

The science of vital statistics such as birth, death, disease, marriage and other aspects of a population.

The statistical study of the human population.

(जनसांख्यिकी/ जनांकिकी)

Anthropology, Population analysis, Population density, Population growth

-

There is a shift in the demography of a region over the years.

Migration

Noun

Movement from one part of something to another.

(प्रवास)

Exodus, Flight, Journey, Movement, Shift, Transfer, Move

Idleness, Inaction

There has been a migration of people from war-struck regions to peaceful regions of the world.

Critical

Adjective

Inclined to criticize severely.

Exercising judicious evaluation.

Of the nature of a crisis.

Some important juncture.

(गंभीर/ आलोचनात्मक/ नाजुक/ फुलाना/ आलोचनावादी)

Demanding, Analytical, Belittling, Biting, Crucial, Dangerous, Decisive, Dire, Carping, Rejective

Complimentary, Praising, Trivial, Laudatory, Certain, Inessential, Minor, Safe, Uncritical

It is critical to understand all aspects of a project before taking responsibility for it.

Underpin

Verb

To replace or strengthen the foundation of something.

(सहारा देना)

Build, Construct, Depend, Derive

Demolish, Destroy, Dismantle, Raze

It is not possible to underpin the structures in Joshi math.

Pandemic

Noun

A Disease occurring over a wide geographic area.

(वैश्विक महामारी)

Broad, Common, Comprehensive, Empyrean

Exclusive, Incomplete, Individual, Infrequent, Particular

In the last 2 – 3 years, the pandemic has caused some serious psychological impacts on humans.

Enumeration

Noun

The act of making a list of things one after another.

The act of enumerating.

(गणना/ विस्तृत विवरण)

Catalog, List, Register

-

Enumeration of public grievances in his speech was done in a very attractive manner.

Postponement

Noun

The action of postponing something; deferral.

(स्थगन)

Deferment, Deferral, Delay, Delaying, Putting off

Continuation, Persistence

The postponement of marriage is likely to occur.

Commencement

Noun

An act of commencing.

The ceremonies for conferring degrees.

(प्रारंभ/ आरंभ/ शुरू/ सूत्रपात)

Alpha, Birth, Genesis, Convocation, Dawning, Graduation, Initiation, Kickoff

Conclusion, End, Ending, Finish

We invited the Minister to speak at the commencement.

Consequently

Adverb

As a result.

(फलस्वरूप/ इसलिये/ परिणामतः)

Accordingly, So, Thus, Ergo

-

Salaries were increased, consequently, complaints were fewer.

Cite

Verb

To call upon officially or authoritatively to appear (as before a court)

(अदालत में तलब करना)

Call, Order, Command, Summon

Ignore

The article has cited three journals as its reference.

Verb

To quote by way of example, authority or proof

(उदाहरणार्थ प्रस्तुत करना)

Allege, Allude to, Indicate, Mention, Offer

Conceal, Deny, Take, Withhold

Our findings have been cited by thousands of researchers.

Mortality

Noun

The state of being subject to death.

The relative frequency of deaths in a specific population.

Mortal beings collectively called humanity.

The human race.

(नश्वरता/ मृत्यु दर/ मरण/ मृतकों की संख्या)

Fatality, Bloodshed, Carnage, Deadliness, Being, Ephemerality, Flesh, Humanity

Immortality, Permanence, Animal life, Inhumanness

The government has taken many steps to reduce infant mortality.

Urbanization

Noun

The act of urbanizing.

(शहरीकरण/ नगरीकरण/ नगरों के लोगों का बढाव)

-

-

Nature is getting destroyed by excessive urbanization.

Adequately

Adverb

In a way that is sufficient.

(पर्याप्त रूप से)

Appropriately, Competently, Decently, Satisfactorily

Inadequately, Insufficiently, Unequally, Unsatisfactorily

There is no way to adequately prepare for a fight against a tiger.

Outdated

Adjective

Obsolete

(पुराना) 

Old fashioned, Outmoded, Old, Former

Contemporary, Current, Modern, New

The company is using outdated technology.

Imperative

Noun

Something unavoidable or urgent.

An obligatory duty.

(कुछ ऐसा जो अपरिहार्य हो।)

Behest, Charge, Command, Decree, Edict, Injunction

Appeal, Entreaty, Petition, Plea, Recommendation, Grace, Ease

It is imperative to help those in need.

Adjective

Absolutely Unavoidable.

(अनिवार्य/ आदेशात्मक/ आत्यावश्यक/ आज्ञार्थक)

Compulsory, Obligatory, Critical, Crucial, Essential, Bidding, Dominant, Incumbent, Required

Inessential, Insignificant, Nonessential, Optional, Elective

It is a moral imperative to stop and help if someone has met an accident.

Disparity

Noun

Lack of similarity or equality.

Noticeable dissimilarity.

(असमानता/ अंतर/ विभिन्नता/ इंतियाज़)

Discrepancy, Distinction, Divergence, Gap, Imbalance, Inequality

Agreement, Harmony, Alikeness, Similarity

There was a disparity in his behaviour with his driver and a manager in his company.

Impinge

Verb

To make an impression.

To encroach or infringe.

To have an effect or impact.

To strike with a sharp collision.

(टकराना/ ठक्कर खाना/ ठोकर खाना/ चोट लगना/ ऊपर गिराना/ लगाना)

Encroach, Infringe, Intrude, Affect, Invade, Bang, Bash, Collide, Ram, Smash, Swipe

Leave alone, Avoid, Dodge

Mishandling with nature can impinge on our lives in more than one way.

Alacrity

Noun

Promptness in response.

Liveliness

(तत्परता)

Amenability, Obligingness, Gameness, Alertness, Briskness, Cheerfulness, Fervor

Apathy, Sadness, Coolness, Discouragement

Ramkumar accepted my invitation with alacrity.

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Which of the following is not among the Padma Vibhushan Awardee 2023?