Madhya Pradesh at a Glance- Culture, Economy, Symbols, Geography, Tourism, Politics and Demography of Madhya Pradesh


  • Madhya Pradesh was established on November 01, 1956. It is the second largest Indian state by area after Rajasthan and the fifth largest state by population.
  • It is a state in central India.
  • The capital of Madhya Pradesh is Bhopal city.
  • The largest city of Madhya Pradesh is Indore.
  • As its name implies—Madhya means “central” and Pradesh means “region” or “state”—it is situated in the heart of the country. 
  • States sharing borders with Madhya Pradesh- Uttar Pradesh (northeast), Chhattisgarh (southeast), Maharashtra (south), Gujarat (west), and Rajasthan (northwest).
  • Its topography is defined by Narmada Sone Valley.
  • Chhattisgarh was carved out of Madhya Pradesh on 1 November 2000.
  • At present Madhya Pradesh consists of 10 divisions and 52 districts.

Madhya Pradesh


Madhya Pradesh State Symbols

Name of Madhya Pradesh State Symbols

Madhya Pradesh State Symbol images

State Flower of Madhya Pradesh

Parrot Tree (Butea monosperma)

State Flower of Madhya Pradesh

State Animal of Madhya Pradesh

Swamp Deer (Barasingha)

State Animal of MP

State Tree of Madhya Pradesh

 India Banyan (Ficus benghlensis)

State Tree of Madhya Pradesh

State Bird of Madhya Pradesh

Dhudraj, the Asian paradise flycatcher (Terpsiphone paradise)

State Bird of Madhya Pradesh

State Sport of Madhya Pradesh


State Sport of Madhya Pradesh

State Fish of Madhya Pradesh


State Fish of Madhya Pradesh

State Emblem


State Emblem of MP



Madhya Pradesh is geographically bounded in north by Ganga-Yamuna plains, in west by the Aravali, in east by Chhattisgarh plain and in south by Tapti valley and plateau of Maharashtra.



  • The climate in Madhya Pradesh is subtropical. 
  • The temperature in the entire state ranges above 29.4°C. Temperature of above 42°C is recorded during the month of May in regions like Gwalior, Morena and Datia.
  • Mandla, Balaghat, Sidhi, Jabalpur and other extreme eastern parts receive more than 150 cm rainfall. The districts of western Madhya Pradesh receive less than 80 cm rainfall.
  • The annual rainfall ranges from 800mm to 1800 mm and the average annual temperature varies from 22 to 25 degrees Celsius.

Seasons of Madhya Pradesh

  • Summer - March- June
  • Winter - November-February
  • Southwest Monsoon - June-September


Five major types of soil are found in Madhya Pradesh:


Soil type


Black soil

  • Consists of iron and lime
  • Formed by deposition and subsequent weathering of basalt of Deccan trap
  • Suitable for cotton, also good for wheat and soybean
  • Found in Malwa plateau, Narmada-Sone valley and Satpura-Maikal range.

 Alluvial Soil


  • Alluvial soil is the most fertile soil.
  • It is formed by the deposition of particles brought down by rivers.
  • Found in Bhind, Morena, Sheopur, Gwalior and Shivpuri districts.
  • Crops like sugarcane are grown on this soil.

Mixed soil


  • It is a mix of red, yellow and black.
  • Calcium carbonate is found in excessive amount.
  • Found in the Bundelkhand.
  • Pulses, jowar, millet, etc., are mainly grown on this soil.

Kachari Soil

  • Chambal and its tributaries formed the soil within their catchment area.
  • Kachari Soil is found in Bhind, Morena, Sheopur, Gwalior region of Madhya Pradesh.

Red-yellow soil


  • It is found in Baghelkhand region.
  • The soil is rich in ferric oxide and therefore, it is red in color.
  • It basic in nature and suitable for growing Rice.



  • Madhya Pradesh has the source of some of the most important rivers of India. These are Narmada (Shahdol district), Tapti (Betul District), Mahi (Dhar district), Godawari (Wainganga - Balaghat District).
  • The State also provides water to Ganga and Yamuna through Chambal, Sindh, Betwa, Kuanwari-Sindh and Son, Rihand & Ken rivers and Godawari river basin through Wain Ganga (Pranhita) rivers.
  • The Chambal forms the state’s northern border with Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh.
  • Narmada is the largest river in Madhya Pradesh.

Lakes in Madhya Pradesh

Bhopal is nicknamed as “City of Lakes”.





Bhojtal and Lower Lake together form Bhoj Wetlands which is one of the Ramsar Sites in India.

Lower Lake

Moti Lake

Sharangpani Lake

Tawa Reservoir


Shahpura lake


Sakhya Sagar lake



Waterfalls in Madhya Pradesh

  • Raneh Waterfall, near Khajuraho
  • Dhuandhar Waterfalls, Jabalpur
  • Keoti falls, near Rewa
  • Tincha falls, Indore
  • Patalpani falls, Indore
  • Kapildhara waterfalls, Amarkantak
  • Mandhar and Dardi falls in Omkareshwar
  • Pandav falls, Panna
  • Chuliya falls, Mandsaur
  • Bahuti Falls, Rewa- Highest waterfall in Madhya Pradesh
  • Chachai Falls


  • Madhya Pradesh has maximum number of national parks i.e. 11 followed by Assam (7).
  • Kanha National Park, in the southeastern part of the state, is famous for the barasingha. Bandhavgarh National Park, in the east, is famous for the endangered white tiger.
  • There are 25 Wildlife Sanctuaries in Madhya Pradesh.

25 Wildlife Sanctuaries in Madhya Pradesh

(Source: Madhya Pradesh Forest Department)

List of National Parks in Madhya Pradesh (11)

  • Bandhavgarh National Park
  • Kanha National Park
  • Satpura National Park
  • Sanjay National Park
  • Madhav National Park
  • Van Vihar National Park
  • Mandla Plant Fossils National Park
  • Panna National Park
  • Pench National Park
  • White Tiger Safari & Zoo, Mukundpur
  • National Chambal Sanctuary

List of Wildlife Sanctuaries in Madhya Pradesh







Ken Ghariyal



National Chambal




Kuno Palpur

Pench Mowgli


Sanjay Dubri


Son Ghariyal






Vir Durgawati




Primarily, MP has an agricultural and pastoral economy. Wheat, Soybean and Jowar (Sorghum) are the main Crops. Paddy, Coarse Millets, Pulses, Cereals and Groundnut are also grown. Cash crops like Cotton, Sugarcane and Oil Seeds are also grown in the state.

Mandsaur is the largest opium producing district in the country.

Industrial development is mainly concentrated in the more advance districts like Indore, Bhopal, Gwalior and Jabalpur.


Madhya Pradesh ranks third next only to Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh. In terms of mineral production in India. India's largest Open Cast Copper mine is located at Malajkhand in Madhya Pradesh.

Madhya Pradesh contains 7.71% of the total coal reserve of the country.

As per Indian Minerals Yearbook 2019, Madhya Pradesh is the only diamond producing State in the country and is the leading producer of copper conc., diaspore, pyrophyllite, manganese ore, limestone and clay (others).

Important mineral occurrences in the State are: 

  • Bauxite in Balaghat, Guna, Jabalpur, Katni, Mandla, Rewa, Satna, Shahdol, Shivpuri, Sidhi & Vidisha districts;
  • Calcite in Barwani, Jhabua, Khandwa & Khargone districts; 
  • China clay in Betul, Chhatarpur, Chhindwara, Gwalior, Hoshangabad, Jabalpur, Khargone, Narsinghpur, Raisen, Satna, Shahdol & Sidhi districts;
  • Copper in Balaghat, Betul & Jabalpur districts; 
  • Coal in Betul, Shahdol & Sidhi  districts; 
  • Diamond in Panna district;
  • Diaspore & pyrophyllite in Chhatarpur, Shivpuri & Tikamgarh districts;
  • Dolomite in Balaghat, Chhindwara, Damoh, Dewas, Harda, Hoshangabad, Jabalpur, Jhabua, Katni, Mandla, Narsinghpur, Sagar & Seoni districts;
  • Fireclay in Betul, Chhindwara, Jabalpur, Katni, Narsinghpur, Panna, Sagar, Shahdol & Sidhi districts;
  • Iron ore (haematite) in Betul, Gwalior, Jabalpur & Katni districts;
  • Limestone in Balaghat, Chhindwara, Damoh, Dhar, Hoshangabad, Jabalpur, Jhabua, Khargone, Katni, Mandsaur, Morena, Narsinghpur, Neemach, Rewa, Sagar, Satna, Sehore, Shahdol & Sidhi districts;
  • Manganese ore in Balaghat and Jhabua districts;
  • Ochre in Dhar, Gwalior, Jabalpur, Katni, Mandla, Rewa, Satna, Shahdol & Umaria districts;
  • Pyrophyllite in Chhatarpur, Sagar, Shivpuri & Tikamgarh districts;
  • Wuartz/silica sand in Balaghat, Dewas, Dhar, Jabalpur, Khandwa, Khargone, Morena, Rewa & Shahdol districts;
  • Yalc/steatite/soapstone in Dhar, Jabalpur, Jhabua, Katni, Narsinghpur & Sagar districts and vermiculite in Jhabua district.


  • As per India State of Forest Report 2019, Madhya Pradesh is a forest rich State and is ranked first among the States in terms of the Recorded Forest Area (RFA) which is 94,689 sq. km.
  • The State has a sizeable tribal and rural population which is dependent on the forests for their livelihood and basic needs.
  • There are 6 Tiger Reserves in the State covering an area of 6117.26 sq km. Eco-sensitive zones have been declared for 19 protected areas. The State with a population of 526 Tigers, is recognized as Tiger State of India, as per the 'All India Tiger Estimation 2018'.
  • The eastern districts of Balaghat, Mandla, Shahdol, Sidhi have dense forest cover. The abundantly found trees include Teak, Sal, Bamboo and Tendu.


  • Madhya Pradesh occupies an area of 3,08,252 square km. Chhindwara is the largest district of MP in terms of area while Datiya is the smallest district.
  • Madhya Pradesh has population of 7.27 crores of which male and female are 37,612,306 and 35,014,503 respectively.
  • Indore has the maximum population while Harda has minimum population.
  • Sex Ratio – 931 females per 1000 males (Highest sex ration in Balaghat district)
  • Total Literacy rate- 69.32%, Female literacy- 59.24%, Male Literacy- 78.73%
  • More than 75% of the population of Madhya Pradesh resides in villages whose main occupation is agriculture.
  • The tribes of Madhya Pradesh constitute over one-fifth of the state's population and are mainly concentrated in southern southwestern and eastern parts of the state.
  • Among these most prominent tribes are the Bhil, Baiga, Gond, Korku, Kol, Kamar, and Maria.
  • Bhil, the second largest tribe, is largely concentrated in areas around Jhabua, Khargone, Dhar and Ratlam.
  • Malwi, Bundeli, Bagheli, Nimari are the commonly spoken regional dialects.
  • Most of the people are Hindus. 
  • There are, however, significant minorities population of Muslims, Jains, Christians, and Buddhists also a small Sikh population.


  • The head of state is the governor, who is appointed by the President of India. 
  • The first Governor of Madhya Pradesh was Shri B. P. Sitaramaiya.
  • The governor is aided and advised by the Council of Ministers, which is headed by a Chief Minister and is responsible to the elected, unicameral Legislative Assembly (VidhanSabha-230 seats).
  • The collector exercises both executive and magisterial power. 
  • Hindi is the official language of Madhya Pradesh.
  • The High court of Madhya Pradesh is located in Jabalpur.
  • There are 29 Lok Sabha seats and 11 Rajya Sabha seats in Madhya Pradesh.

Governor of Madhya Pradesh

Mangubhai C Patel

Chief Minister of Madhya Pradesh

Shivraj Singh Chauhan


Girish Gautam

Chief Justice of High Court

Ravi Malimath

List of Chief Ministers of Madhya Pradesh

Chief Ministers



Shivraj Singh Chauhan

23 March 2020


Kamal Nath

18 Dec 2018

23 March 2020

Shivraj Singh Chauhan

14 Dec 2013

17 Dec 2018

Shivraj Singh Chauhan

13 Dec 2008

13 Dec 2013

Shivraj Singh Chauhan

29 Nov 2005

12 Dec 2008

Babulal Gaur

23 Aug 2004

29 Nov 2005

Uma Bharti

08 Dec 2003

23 Aug 2004

Digvijay Singh

01 Dec 1998

08 Dec 2003

Digvijay Singh

07 Dec 1993

01 Dec 1998

President's rule

16 Dec 1992

06 Dec 1993

Sunderlal Patwa

05 Mar 1990

15 Dec 1992

Shyama Charan Shukla

09 Dec 1989

04 Mar 1990

Motilal Vora

25 Jan 1989

08 Dec 1989

Arjun Singh

14 Feb 1988

24 Jan 1989

Motilal Vora

13 Mar 1985

13 Feb 1988

Arjun Singh

11 Mar 1985

12 Mar 1985

Arjun Singh

08 Jun 1980

10 Mar 1985

President's rule

18 Feb 1980

08 Jun 1980

Sunderlal Patwa

20 Jan 1980

17 Feb 1980

Virendra Kumar Saklecha

18 Jan 1978

19 Jan 1980

Kailash Chandra Joshi

26 Jun 1977

17 Jan 1978

President's rule

29 Apr 1977

25 Jun 1977

Shyama Charan Shukla

23 Dec 1975

29 Apr 1977

Prakash Chandra Sethi

23 Mar 1972

22 Dec 1975

Prakash Chandra Sethi

29 Jan 1972

22 Mar 1972

Shyama Charan Shukla

26 Mar 1969

28 Jan 1972

Raja Nareshchandra Singh

13 Mar 1969

25 Mar 1969

Govind Narayan Singh

30 Jul 1967

12 Mar 1969

Dwarka Prasad Mishra

09 Mar 1967

29 Jul 1967

Dwarka Prasad Mishra

30 Sep 1963

08 Mar 1967

Bhagwantrao Mandloi

12 Mar 1962

29 Sep 1963

Kailash Nath Katju

14 Mar 1957

11 Mar 1962

Kailash Nath Katju

31 Jan 1957

14 Mar 1957

Bhagwantrao Mandloi

01 Jan 1957

30 Jan 1957

Pt. Ravishankar Shukla

01 Nov 1956

31 Dec 1956

List of Governors of Madhya Pradesh

S. No





Dr. Pattabhi Sitaramayya

1 November 1956

13 June 1957


Hari Vinayak Pataskar

14 June 1957

10 February 1965


K. Chengalaraya Reddy

11 February 1965

2 February 1966


P. V. Dixit (acting)

2 February 1966

9 February 1966


K. Chengalaraya Reddy

10 February 1966

7 March 1971


Satya Narayan Sinha

8 March 1971

13 October 1977


N. N. Wanchu

14 October 1977

16 August 1978


C. M. Poonacha

17 August 1978

29 April 1980


B. D. Sharma

30 April 1980

25 May 1981


G. P. Singh (acting)

26 May 1981

9 July 1981


B. D. Sharma

10 July 1981

20 September 1983


G. P. Singh (acting)

21 September 1983

7 October 1983


B. D. Sharma

8 October 1983

14 May 1984


Prof. K.M Chandy

15 May 1984

30 November 1987


Narayan Dutta Ojha (acting)

1 December 1987

29 December 1987


Prof. K.M Chandy

30 December 1987

30 March 1989


Sarla Grewal

31 March 1989

5 February 1990


M. A. Khan

6 February 1990

23 June 1993


Mohammad Shafi Qureshi

24 June 1993

21 April 1998


Bhai Mahavir

22 April 1998

6 May 2003


Ram Prakash Gupta

7 May 2003

1 May 2004


Lt. Gen. Krishna Mohan Seth (acting)

2 May 2004

29 June 2004


Balram Jakhar

30 June 2004

29 June 2009


Rameshwar Thakur

30 June 2009

7 September 2011


Ram Naresh Yadav

8 September 2011

7 September 2016

Om Prakash Kohli (additional charge)

8 September 2016 

23 January 2018


Anandiben Patel

23 January 2018

29 July 2019


Lalji Tandon

29 July 2019

30 June 2020

Anandiben Patel (additional charge)

30 June 2020

8 July 2021


Mangubhai C. Patel

8 July 2021



Madhya Pradesh is a culturally diverse state. Music and Dance of Madhya Pradesh are the representation of the MP culture and traditions.


  • The Khajuraho Dance Festival is organised by the Madhya Pradesh Kala Parishad annually. It is based on the Indian classical dance tradition.
  • Allauddin Khan Sangeet Samaroh, also known as Maihar Festival, is an ode to music maestro Ustad Allauddin Khan.
  • Tribal Food Festival
  • Mandu Festival- Adventure and water sports along with cultural programme
  • Tansen Samaroh- World Music Festival
  • Khajuraho International Film Festival
  • Jal Mahotsav


  • Two famous singers of medieval India- Tansen and Baiju Bawra- were born near Gwalior.
  • Some of the famous folk dances of Madhya Pradesh are Mataki, Jawara, Rai, Karma, Saila, Gangaur, Badhai, Baredi, Naurata, Ahiri and Bhagoria.
  • MP is home to four gharanas of Hindustani classical music—Maihargharana, Gwalior gharana, Seniagharana and Indore gharana.
  • Pai songs are sung, accompanied by the saira dance, during the rainy season. 
  • The local styles of folk singing include Faga, Bhartahari, Sanja geet, Bhopa, Kalbelia, Bhat/Bhand/Charan, Vasdeva, Videsia, Kalgi Turra, Nirgunia, Alha, Pandwani Gayan and Garba Garbi Govalan.


Some of the unique art and handicraft of Madhya Pradesh are as follows:

  • Patangarh’s Gond Paintings
  • Batik Print
  • Zari Zardozi
  • Durrie Weaving
  • Bead Jwellery making
  • Batto Bai Dolls
  • Bhil or Pithora Paintings
  • Nandna block Print
  • Bagh painting
  • Mandana Art
  • Natural Wooden Sculptures
  • Maheshwari Sarees weaving
  • Marble Art of Bhedaghat
  • Papier Mache of Ujjain


  • From natural wonders like waterfalls, lakes, forests and caves to man-made wonders such as temples, forts and dams, Madhya Pradesh has various places to visit.
  • Some of the famous tourist destinations in Madhya Pradesh are:
    • Ram Raja Temple, Laxmi Narayan Temple, Orchha Wildlife Sanctuary, Chaturbhuj Temple, Orchha Fort- Orchha
    • Tilwara Ghat- Jabalpur
    • Gurudwara Data Bandi Chhor- Gwalior
    • Kal Bhairav Temple- Ujjain
    • Khajurao Temples- Khajurao
    • Sanchi- land of Stupas
    • Jai Vilas Mahal
    • Gwalior Fort
    • Amarkantak- Teerthraj
    • Omkareshwar- Mini Varanasi- Located on the confluence of Narmada and Kaveri river
    • Maheshwar- temple town of Madhya Pradesh
    • Tiger Reserves in Madhya Pradesh
    • Bhimbetka Caves
    • Madan Mahal Fort, Bargi Dam, Chausath Yogini Temple, Sangram Sagar Lake- Jabalpur
    • Jahaz Mahal, Hindola Mahal, Rani Roopmati Pavillion, Jami Masjid, Bagh Caves- Mandu

Three sites in Madhya Pradesh have been declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO:

  • The Khajuraho Group of Monuments (1986)
  • Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi (1989)
  • The Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka (2003)


  • Lata Mangeshkar and Asha Bhonsle- Singer
  • Aadesh Srivastava- Singer and Composer
  • Rahat Indori- Lyricist and Urdu poet
  • Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar- Lawyer and Social Activist
  • Pandit KrishanRao Shankar- Musician (Gwalior Gharana)
  • Ustad Amir Khan- Singer
  • Ashok Kumar- Actor
  • Kishore Kumar- Singer and Actor
  • Javed Akhtar- Poet, Screenwriter
  • Jaya Bacchan- Actress and MP
  • Raghuram Rajan- Economist
  • Shankar Dayal Sharma- 9th President of India
  • Atal Bihari Vajpayee- 10th PM of India
  • Kailash Sathyarthi- Social Activist
  • Kartik Aryan- Actor
  • Vijaya Raje Scindia and Madhav Rao Scindia

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about Madhya Pradesh

Which is the largest river in MP?

Narmada river rising near Amarkantak range of mountains in Madhya Pradesh is the largest river in the state.

Which is the highest waterfall in Madhya Pradesh?

Bahuti falls is the highest waterfall in Madhya Pradesh on the river Sellar. It is located near Chachai Falls.

Which district of Madhya Pradesh has the highest sex ratio?

Balaghat district with sex ratio 1021 is the district with highest sex ration in Madhya Pradesh.

Which is the smallest district of Madhya Pradesh in terms of area?

Datiya, with an area of 2691, is the smallest district of Madhya Pradesh.

Who is the current governor of Madhya Pradesh?

Mangubhai C Patel is the current governor of Madhya Pradesh.

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