Daily Current Affairs and GK | 1, 2 and 3 October 2023

By Priyanka Chaudhary | Last Modified: 04 Oct 2023 17:49 PM IST

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Topic: Awards and Prizes

1. Katalin Kariko and Drew Weissman are winners of the 2023 Nobel Prize in Medicine.

  • They have been jointly awarded the 2023 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for work on messenger RNA (mRNA) technology that paved the way for groundbreaking COVID-19 vaccines.
  • Katalin Kariko is a Hungarian-American biochemist. Drew Weissman is an American physician-scientist.
  • The Nobel Prize Committee said their groundbreaking findings have fundamentally changed the understanding of how mRNA interacts with a human being's immune system.
  • It said they contributed to the vaccine development during one of the greatest threats to human health in modern times.
  • The mRNA vaccines were approved for use in December 2020.
  • mRNA vaccines provide the genetic molecules that tell cells what proteins to make.
  • They are different from traditional vaccines, which use a weakened virus or a key piece of the virus' protein.
  • The Moderna and Pfizer and BioNTech vaccines were based on mRNA technology. The technology was experimental before the pandemic.
  • Kariko and Weissman have won the prestigious Lasker Award in 2021. This award is often seen as a precursor to the Nobel.
  • They will receive the Nobel Prize at a formal ceremony in Stockholm on the 10th of December, the death anniversary of scientist Alfred Nobel.
  • Nucleoside is made up of a nitrogenous base and a five-carbon sugar. Nucleotide is made up of a nitrogenous base, a five-carbon sugar, and phosphate groups. 

Nobel Prize in Medicine

(Source: News on AIR)

Topic: State News/Bihar

2. Bihar government has made public the findings of its Caste- based Survey on 02 October 2023.

  • The Survey was carried out in two phases this year.
  • The officiating Chief Secretary of Bihar Vivek Kumar Singh released the data of the Survey in Patna.
  • According to the 101-page Survey report, the population of the state is more than 13 crore.
  • According to the report, the biggest caste group is Extremely Backward Caste (EBCs). It accounts for 36.01% of the state’s demography. The population of this group is 4.70 crore.
  • The Survey report says the Backward Caste (BC) population is 27.12% in the state. Its number is around 3.54 crore.
  • The headcount encoded 209 types of subgroups. It says Yadavs are the largest group in the state. They account for 14.26% of the state population.
  • The Scheduled Caste (SC) forms 19.65% of the state population. The number of this group is around 2.56 crore.
  • The people of the general category account for 15.52% of the population. Their population is 2.02 crore.
  • The tribal population stands at 1.68% of the state population.
  • Along with caste details, the Bihar government has also released data on the religion-based population.
  • The major population (82%) of Bihar follows Hinduism. The population of the Hindu religion is around 10.72 crore.
  • The Muslim population stands at 17.7% and it is 2.31 crore.
  • The third largest religion is Christianity. It is followed by Sikhs in the state.

Topic: National Appointments

3. Lt. Gen Raghu Srinivasan assumed charge as 28th Director General Border Roads (DGBR) on 30 September 2023.

  • He took over the charge after the superannuation of Lt Gen Rajeev Chaudhry.
  • He was holding the appointment of Commandant, College of Military Engineering, Pune.
  • Lt Gen Raghu Srinivasan was commissioned into the Corps of Engineers in 1987.
  • He has taken part in Operation Vijay, Operation Rakshak and Operation Parakram.
  • Director General Border Roads is the executive head of the Border Roads Organisation (BRO)

BRO DG Raghu Srinivasan

(Source: PIB)

Topic: Infrastructure and Energy

4. India’s first solar roof cycling track has been inaugurated in Hyderabad.

  • Municipal Administration and Urban Development Minister K Tarakarama Rao has inaugurated India’s first solar roof cycling track in Hyderabad.
  • It is the second-of-its-kind cycling track in the world.
  • It is located on the Outer Ring Road (ORR) between the main carriageway and service road.
  • It is a vital step in making Hyderabad an active mobility capital of India.
  • The government is also planning to develop similar tracks in other areas, including around the Gandipet Lake.
  • This 23-km cycle path has two stretches. The pink line of the 8.5 km is from Nanakramguda to Telangana State Police Academy.
  • The track's blue line is 14.5 km long from Kollur to Narsingi with five different access points.
  • It is a three-lane track that is 4.5 meters wide, with one meter of green space on either side.
  • A total of 16,000 solar panels were installed to generate 16 megawatts (MW) of power, which will be utilized to light up the track at night.

Topic: State News/ Madhya Pradesh

5. PM Narendra Modi launched several initiatives in Madhya Pradesh.

  • Narendra Modi laid the foundation stone and dedicated to the nation multiple development initiatives worth around 19,260 crores rupees in Madhya Pradesh from Gwalior.
  • He laid the foundation stone of Jal Jeevan Mission projects of more than 1530 crore rupees for the Gwalior and Sheopur districts.
  • He laid the foundation stone of critical care units in Gwalior, Vidisha, Betul, Katni, Burhanpur, Narsinghpur, Damoh and Agar Malwa.
  • It will be built at a cost of more than 150 crore Rupees.
  • He also dedicated the academic building of IIT Indore.
  • He also laid the foundation stone of the Multi-Modal Logistics Park at Indore and Integrated Industrial Township in Ujjain.
  • He dedicated Atal Bihari Vajpayee Divyang Sports Training Centre, Gwalior to the nation.
  • He also laid the foundation stone of five different projects of more than one thousand 880 crore rupees.
  • He also flagged off the Delhi-Vadodara Expressway, which has been developed at a cost of about 11 thousand 895 crores Rupees.
  • The Ghatigaon-Bhitarwar and Sada projects will together provide drinking water to over 3 lakh villagers of the region.

Topic: International News

6. Dr. Mohamed Muizzu won the Presidential elections of Maldives.

  • Dr. Mohamed Muizzu of the PPM PNC coalition has won the Presidential elections in Maldives.
  • He has got more than 53 per cent of the votes. As per the laws, at least a 50% vote is necessary for a candidate to become victorious.
  • The polling was held at more than 570 polling stations.
  • The turnout in the second round has improved to 86% from the 78% in the first round.
  • Ibrahim Mohammed Solih of the ruling MDP party vote has increased from 39% in the first round to 46% in the runoff. He fell short of the necessary 50% win.
  • The vote for change in the Maldives comes after a strong anti-incumbency sentiment against Ibrahim Mohammed Solih.
  • Dr. Mohamed Muizzu also announced the release of Abdulla Yameen who is serving an 11-year sentence on charges of Corruption.
  • Maldives:
    • It is an island country located in the Indian Ocean. It lies southwest of Sri Lanka and India.
    • It is the smallest island Asian country in terms of Area and the second least populous country in Asia.
    • Capital: Male
    • Currency: Maldivian Rufiyaa

New President of Maldives

(Source: News on AIR)

Topic: State News/ Uttar Pradesh

7. Uttar Pradesh government launched the 'Har Ghar Solar Abhiyan' camp in Lucknow and Varanasi on October 2.

  • The Uttar Pradesh government has launched this campaign to encourage the use of solar energy by people.
  • This camp has been organized on the birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi.
  • The main aim of the campaign is to promote the use of solar energy by the residents of the state.
  • It will help the government in achieving the target under the Solar Energy Policy 2022 of the Uttar Pradesh New and Renewable Energy Development Agency (UPNEDA).
  • The aim of the Solar Energy Policy 2022 of Uttar Pradesh is to achieve 6,000 megawatts of solar rooftop plant installations in residential and commercial facilities.
  • UPNEDA Director Anupam Shukla said the first boot camp under this campaign would be organised at the Vikas Bhawan in Lucknow.
  • These camps will provide comprehensive information about the installation of solar rooftop systems and the process for applying them.

Topic: Important Days

8. International Day of Older Persons 2023: 1 October

  • The day highlights the contributions of older people to society and raises awareness about the opportunities and challenges of aging in the present century.
  • On 14 December 1990, the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution to designate 1 October as the International Day of Older Persons.
  • In 1991, the UN General Assembly adopted the United Nations Principles for Older Persons.
  • 2023 Theme: Fulfilling the Promises of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights for Older Persons: Across Generations
  • The number of people aged 65 years or older worldwide is projected to more than double, rising from 761 million in 2021 to 1.6 billion in 2050. 
  • In 2021, 1 in 10 people worldwide were aged 65 or above. In 2050, this age group is projected to account for 1 in 6 people globally.
  • Women tend to live longer than men and thus comprise the majority of older persons. 

Topic: Important Days

9. World Habitat Day 2023: 2 October

  • It is celebrated on the first Monday of October every year.
  • In 1985, United Nations designated the first Monday of October as World Habitat Day.
  • The day was first celebrated in 1986 in Nairobi, Kenya and the theme was “Shelter is my Right”.
  • Theme 2023: "Resilient urban economies. Cities as drivers of growth and recovery"
  • This year the host country for the global observance is Azerbaijan.
  • SDG-11: Sustainable Cities and Communities

Topic: Important Days

10. International Day of Non-Violence 2023: 2 October

  • The day is observed on 2 October to commemorate the birthday of Mahatma Gandhi (father of nation).
  • Theme 2023: "Say No to Violence"
  • In 2007, UN General Assembly adopted a resolution to designate 2 October as International Day of Non-Violence.
  • The principle of non-violence — also known as non-violent resistance — rejects the use of physical violence in order to achieve social or political change. 
  • In India, 2 October is observed as Gandhi Jayanti.
  • Mahatma Gandhi:
    • His full name was Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi.
    • He was born in Porbandar, Gujarat on 2nd October 1869.
    • He was an ardent follower of Satyagraha and Ahimsa. 
    • His notable works: Hind Swaraj, My Experiments with Truth, Harijan (Gujarati Newspaper), Young India (English Newspaper)
    • He founded the Harijan Sevak Sangh in 1932.
    • Times Magazine named Mahatma Gandhi as the Man of the Year in 1930.

Topic: Sports

11. On Seventh Day of the Asian Games, India won five medals.

  • India won two Gold medals, Two Silver medals and one Bronze medal on the seventh day of the Asian Games in Hangzhou, China.
  • India's total medal tally reached 38 medals with 10 Gold, 14 Silver and 14 Bronze.
  • In the men's 10,000m final, Kartik Kumar and Gulveer Singh won silver and bronze medals respectively.
  • India won the men’s team semi-final by defeating Korea by 3-2 in the badminton.
  • Bopanna and Rutuja Bhosale won gold in the mixed doubles tennis final.
  • In the men's team squash event, the Indian trio of Saurav Ghosal, Abhay Singh, and Mahesh Mangaonkar won gold medal.
  • Sarabjot Singh and Divya TS won silver in the 10m air pistol mixed team final.
  • Preeti and Lovlina Borgohai entered into semi-finals of their respective boxing categories, which ensured medal for India.
  • Nikhat Zareen has already qualified for the semi-final.

Topic: National Appointments

12. Nitin Gupta’s tenure as CBDT chairman has been extended till 2024.

  • The government has decided to extend the tenure of Nitin Gupta as chairman of the Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT), till June 30, 2024.
  • The Appointments Committee of the Cabinet (ACC) has approved the reappointment of Nitin Gupta as the CBDT Chairman.
  • He was scheduled to retire on September 30.
  • He is a 1986-batch Indian Revenue Service (IRS) officer of the Income-tax department.
  • As per the government notification, the service period of Nitin Gupta has been extended on a ‘Contract Basis’.
  • Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT):
    • It is a statutory body under the Central Revenue Act, 1963. It is the administrative body of the Income Tax Department.
    • It deals with matters related to levy and collection of direct taxes like personal income tax, corporate tax, etc.
    • CBDT is headed by the Chairman and comprises six members. Its headquarters are in New Delhi.

Topic: Indian Economy

13. 28% GST on Online Gaming and Casinos become effective from 1 October.

  • The government has imposed 28 percent GST on betting, online gaming, horse racing, and lottery.
  • The decision to levy 28 percent GST was taken in the 51st GST Council meeting.
  • Online gaming companies have started charging 28% GST on the full value of bets from 1 October.
  • In the case of casinos, the tax would be imposed on the face value of the chips.
  • Tax will be imposed on the full value of the bets placed by bookmaker/totalisator in the case of Horse Racing.
  • As per the amendment in the IGST act, offshore online gaming platforms have to register themselves in India and pay 28% tax per domestic law.
  • As per the notification, the supply of online money gaming will be treated as imported goods so it empowers tax officials to levy IGST.
  • The Integrated Goods and Services Tax (Amendment) Bill, 2023, and the Central Goods and Services Tax (Amendment) Bill, 2023 were passed to introduce a 28 per cent GST for online gaming, casinos, and horse racing.
  • The notification has also prescribed norms for valuation.
  • Several online gaming companies and casino operators, including Dream 11, have received GST show cause notices for alleged short payment of taxes.

Topic: State News/ Manipur

14. Manipur Government distributed One-time financial assistance to people living in relief camps.

  • Under the Special Scheme for Education of Children of Labour Card Holders staying in Relief Camps, Manipur Chief Minister N. Biren Singh distributed one-time financial assistance of Rs 5000 to beneficiaries.
  • The government provided 5000 rupees to labour card holders staying in relief camps to educate their children.
  • The Chief Minister said that people whose houses had burnt will be built by the government.
  • People whose houses have not burned or razed to the ground in the violence have started resettling in their original places.
  • According to the Manipur Government, 12,694 displaced children living in relief camps across the state. Out of them, 100 are severely traumatized and they need professional counselling.
  • In the ethnic violence, 50,650 men, women and children of different communities were displaced and they are now living in 350 camps.
  • Around 12000 people have taken shelter in Mizoram.

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