Daily Current Affairs and GK | 28 July 2023

By Priyanka Chaudhary | Last Modified: 28 Jul 2023 17:30 PM IST

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Topic: Summits/Conferences/Meetings

1. NITI Aayog is organizing a two-day G20 conference on the Green and Sustainable Growth Agenda for the Global Economy.

  • Two-day conference is taking place in New Delhi on July 28-29, 2023.
  • The conference aims to examine prospects for green and sustainable growth globally.
  • It also aims to examine challenges for green and sustainable growth globally.
  • A two-day international policy workshop is being convened by NITI Aayog together with the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Ottawa, and the Global Development Network (GDN), New Delhi.
  • Around 40 leading thinkers are participating in this workshop.
  • The focus of the first day of the workshop will be on themes related to energy, climate, technology, policy, and reshaping global finance for sustainable growth.
  • During the second day, themes related to multilateralism as well as adjustment, resilience, and inclusion in an uncertain world will be discussed.

Topic: Sports

2. Aditya S Samant becomes India's 83rd chess Grandmaster.

  • Aditya S Samant is a 17-year-old chess prodigy from Maharashtra.
  • Before becoming India’s 83rd chess Grandmaster, he held the title of International Master.
  • In the BielChess MTO 2023 tournament, he faced fellow Indian player Aryan Chopra in the ninth round.
  • To become a Grandmaster (GM), a player is required to secure three GM norms.
  • The player is also required to cross the live rating of 2,500 Elo points to become a GM.
  • Aditya S Samant secured his first GM norm at the Abu Dhabi Masters in August 2022.
  • He earned his 2nd GM norm at the 3rd El Llobregat Open in December 2022.
  • He is the 3rd Indian to achieve the final GM norm at the Biel Chess tournament.
  • In 2021, Harshit Raja achieved his 3rd GM norm in Biel.
  • In 2022, Pranav Anand achieved his 3rd GM norm in Biel.
  • V Prraneeth of Telangana had in May become India's 82nd Grandmaster.
  • The Elo rating system is used to calculate the relative skill levels of players in chess.

Topic: International News

3. Cambodian PM Hun Sen to step down after four decades and hand over power to his son.

  • One of the world's longest-serving leaders, Hun Sen, will resign and hand power to his eldest son after almost four decades.
  • Hun Sen had assumed the office of Prime Minister in 1998. He is the longest-serving head of the government of Cambodia.
  • His Cambodian People's Party (CPP) won a landslide victory in the recent election.
  • Hun Manet will take over as prime minister of the new government on 22 August.
  • After stepping down as PM, Hun Sen will become the President of the senate and act as head of state when the king is overseas.
  • Opposition leader Kem Sokha was convicted of treason in March and was sentenced to 27 years.
  • Cambodia ranks 150th out of 180 in Transparency International's corruption perception index.
  • Cambodia:
    • It is a country in Southeast Asia.
    • It is bordered by Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, and the Gulf of Thailand.
    • Its capital and largest city is Phnom Penh.

Topic: Awards and Prizes

4. Shankari Chandran wins Miles Franklin Literary Award 2023.

  • Sri Lankan-origin Australian writer Shankari Chandran won the Miles Franklin Literary Award 2023.
  • She won the award for her book ‘Chai Time at Cinnamon Gardens’.
  • ‘Chai Time at Cinnamon Gardens’ is a story about family, memories, community, and race.
  • It highlights Australia’s difficult and complex equation with multiculturalism and the traumas of post-colonialism.
  • Miles Franklin Literary Award is given to a novel which is of the highest literary merit and presents Australian life in any of its phases.
  • It was instituted as per the will of Miles Franklin. She was a famous writer.

Topic: Science and Technology

5. Scientists have created a robot that can do material testing more efficiently.

  • According to a new report published in the journal Matter, scientists have created robots to develop new semiconductor materials in tests.
  • The Scientists gave the ‘RoboMapper’ a set of materials and asked it to develop alloys. It created 150 different compositions and ran various tests on them.
  • RoboMapper will help scientists in conducting material testing in very less time. It will also reduce cost and energy and make the entire process more sustainable.
  • The conventional process was much longer and time-consuming. The new method of testing is 10 times faster than the previous automated techniques.
  • RoboMapper, the new technology, has also identified perovskite materials used in solar cells.
  • Perovskite materials can absorb sunlight better than silicon.

Topic: Sports

6. Union Minister Anurag Thakur inaugurated Asian Youth and Junior Weightlifting Championships.

  • Asian Youth and Junior Weightlifting Championships is being held in India for the first time at Gautam Buddha University, Greater Noida.
  • It will be organized from 28th July to 5th August.
  • 30 Indian weightlifters, including many Khelo India athletes, will take part in the event.
  • 200 athletes from 15 countries from the Asian region are participating in the tournament.
  • Recently, India at the Weightlifting Commonwealth Championships won a total of 61 medals.
  • Martina Devi, Harshada Garud and Dhanush Loganatha are some current Indian Weightlifters.

Asian Youth and Junior Weightlifting Championships

(Source: PIB)

Topic: MoUs/Agreements

7. MoUs signed between India and the Lao People's Democratic Republic.

  • On 27 July, the five MoUs signed for the implementation of five Quick Impact Projects in the fields of education, health, water facility, and IT.
  • During the third round of Foreign Office Consultations (FOC), the MoUs were signed between the two countries in Vientiane.
  • The Indian side was led by Secretary (East) in the Ministry of External Affairs Saurabh Kumar and Deputy Foreign Minister Phoxay Khaykhamphithoune led the Lao PDR side.
  • During the consultations, both sides comprehensively reviewed the spectrum of bilateral relations.
  • They discussed ways to enhance development partnerships, economic and trade ties, and cooperation in agriculture, health, education, defense, and heritage conservation.
  • Both countries have also exchanged views on regional and global issues of mutual interest and cooperation in multilateral fora such as the United Nations, ASEAN, and the Mekong Ganga Cooperation.
  • The next round of Foreign Office Consultations will be held in New Delhi.

Lao People's Democratic Republic

(Source: News on AIR)

Topic: Indian Polity

8. Cinematograph (Amendment) Bill, 2023 passed by Rajya Sabha on 27 July.

  • The Bill will amend the Cinematograph Act, 1952.
  • The Cinematograph (Amendment) Bill, 2023 was introduced in Rajya Sabha on July 20, 2023.
  • The Act constitutes a Board of Film Certification to certify films for exhibition.
  • The Bill has a provision to add certain additional certificate categories based on age.
  • Under the Act, the film may be certified for the exhibition:
    • Without restriction (‘U’)
    • Without restriction, but subject to the guidance of parents or guardians for children below 12 years of age (‘UA’)
    • Only to adults (‘A’)
    • Only to members of any profession or class of persons (‘S’) 
  • The Bill substitutes the UA category with the following three categories to also indicate age-appropriateness: UA 7+, UA 13+, and UA 16+. 
  • Films with an 'A' or 'S' certificate will require a separate certificate for exhibition on television, or any other media prescribed by the Central Government.
  • The Bill prohibited unauthorized recording and unauthorized exhibition of films.
  • According to the bill, the attempt of unauthorized recording will also be an offence.
  • Under the Copyright Act, 1957, Certain exemptions will also apply to the above offenses. 
  • The 1957 Act allows limited use of copyrighted content without the owner’s authorization in specified cases such as private or personal use, reporting of current affairs, and review or critique of that work.
  • The offenses will be punishable with imprisonment between three months and three years, and a fine between three lakh rupees and 5% of the audited gross production cost.

Topic: State News/ Odisha

9. Naveen Patnaik of Odisha became the second longest-serving chief minister for 23 years.

  • On July 24, Patnaik completed 23 years and 140 days in office. He has been the Chief Minister of Odisha since March 5, 2000.
  • Patnaik surpassed the record of former West Bengal Chief Minister Jyoti Basu, who held the post for 23 years and 138 days.
  • Jyoti Basu remained in office for 23 years 138 days from 21 June 1977 to 5 November 2000.
  • Patnaik also served as the Union Minister of Steel and Mines from 1998 to 2000 and was a Member of Parliament (Lok Sabha) from Aska from 1997 to 2000.
  • Sikkim Chief Minister Pawan Kumar Chamling currently holds the top spot of the longest-serving chief minister's list.
  • Top 10 Longest Serving Chief Ministers in India till 24 July 2023:

Chief Minister

State

Tenure

Pawan Kumar Chamling

Sikkim

24 Years, 166 days

Naveen Patnaik

Odisha

23 years, 140 days

Jyoti Basu

West Bengal

23 years, 138 days

Gegong Apang

Arunachal Pradesh

22 years, 250 days

Lal Thanhawla

Mizoram

22 years, 60 days

Vibhadra Singh

Himachal Pradesh

21 years, 13 days

Manik Sarkar

Tripura

19 years, 363 days

M Karunanidhi

Tamil Nadu

18 years, 362 days

Parkash Singh Badal

Punjab

18 years, 350 days

Yashwant Singh Parmar

Himachal Pradesh

18 years, 83 days

 

Topic: Important Days

10. World Hepatitis Day 2023: 28 July

  • World Hepatitis Day is observed every year on 28 July.
  • This day is observed to raise awareness and encourage global action against hepatitis viral.
  • The theme of the World Hepatitis Day 2023 is "One life, one liver."
  • The World Hepatitis Alliance was established in 2007, which organized the first community-driven World Hepatitis Day in 2008.
  • It is also celebrated to mark the birth anniversary of Nobel Prize-winning scientist Dr. Baruch Blumberg.
  • In 1967, he discovered the Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and developed a diagnostic test and vaccine for the virus.
  • Initially, World Hepatitis Day was observed on May 19 but was later shifted to July 28 in 2010.
  • Around 1.34 million get affected by this disease every year. WHO aims to reduce new hepatitis infections by 90% and deaths by 65% between 2016 and 2030.
  • Hepatitis:
    • It is an inflammation of the liver that is caused by a variety of infectious viruses and noninfectious agents.
    • There are five main strains of the hepatitis virus – A, B, C, D, and E. The most common causes of death are Hepatitis B and C. 

World Hepatitis Day 2023

(Source: News on AIR)

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Topic: Awards and Prizes

11. UNESCO’s Asia Pacific Cultural Heritage Award presented to Byculla railway station.

  • On 24 July, the UNESCO award has been given to the heritage Byculla Railway station to restore its original glory.
  • Shaina NC, a BJP politician, started the restoration work of the station with the help of heritage conservation architect Abha Lamba and Minal Bajaj of Bajaj Trust.
  • UNESCO's Asia Pacific Cultural Heritage Award for Byculla station was presented to Railway Minister Ashwini Vaishnav.
  • In Mumbai, the 169-year-old Byculla Railway Station is one of the oldest railway stations in India that is still in use.
  • In July 2019, the restoration project of Byculla railway station was started.
  • Byculla was one of the original stations when the Bombay–Thane railway was inaugurated in April 1853.
  • In 2022, the Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya (CSMVS) won the highest award of excellence in the UNESCO Asia Pacific Awards 2022, for cultural heritage conservation.

UNESCO’s Asia Pacific Cultural Heritage Award

(Source: News on AIR)

Topic: Important Days

12. International Day for the Conservation of the Mangrove Ecosystem 2023: 26 July

  • Every year on 26 July, the International Day for the Conservation of the Mangrove Ecosystem is celebrated.
  • It is celebrated to raise awareness of the importance of mangrove ecosystems as "a unique, special, and vulnerable ecosystem" and to promote solutions for their sustainable management, conservation, and use.
  • In 2015, the General Conference of the UN Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) adopted this International Day.
  • "Mangrove" is a combination of the Portuguese word "Mangue" and the English word "grove".
  • Mangroves are salt-tolerant plants of tropical and subtropical intertidal regions of the world.
  • Since 1980, half of the mangrove forests have disappeared. Some countries have lost more than 80% of their mangrove populations.
  • The Sunderbans mangrove forest in West Bengal, India is the largest mangrove forest in the world, and UNESCO has designated parts of the forest as World Heritage Sites.

Mangrove Ecosystem 2023

(Source: News on AIR)

Topic: Environment and Ecology

13. Union Environment Minister Bhupender Yadav launched the Resource Efficiency and Circular Economy Industry Coalition (RECEIC).

  • During the 4th Environment and Climate Sustainability Working Group and Environment and Climate Ministers meeting, Resource Efficiency and Circular Economy Industry Coalition (RECEIC) has been launched in Chennai.
  • It has been launched in the presence of the Commissioner on Environment from the European Union and Honorable Ministers from Canada, France, Italy, Denmark, Mauritius, and the United Arab Emirates.
  • RECEIC is an industry-driven initiative under India’s G20 Presidency.
  • The main aim of RECEIC is to promote resource efficiency and circular economy across the world.
  • 39 companies headquartered in 11 countries have joined RECEIC as its founding members.
  • RECEIC aim is to facilitate knowledge-sharing, best practice sharing, and sustainable practices among the participating industries.
  • Partnerships for impact, Technology Cooperation and Finance for scale are the three principles of the coalition.
  • The alliance is envisioned as a self-sustaining entity to make a lasting impact on environmental sustainability.

Resource Efficiency and Circular Economy Industry Coalition

(Source: News on AIR)

Topic: Indian Polity

14. Lok Sabha Speaker Om Birla accepted no-confidence motion against the Government.

  • Lok Sabha Speaker Om Birla accepted the no-confidence motion moved by the Opposition against the government over Manipur violence.
  • Gaurav Gogoi moved a no-confidence motion against the Modi government on July 26.
  • The NDA government has a clear majority in the Lok Sabha but a no-confidence motion is often used as a tool by the opposition to force a discussion in the House on particular issues.
  • What is a no-confidence motion?
    • According to Article 75 (3), the Council of Ministers are collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha.
    • Any Lok Sabha MP with the support of 50 members can introduce a motion of no-confidence against the Council of Ministers.
    • A no-confidence motion can only be moved in the Lok Sabha.
    • A discussion takes place on the motion and finally, voting takes place.
    • If the motion is passed, the government has to resign. It is different from the motion of confidence.
    • A government can prove its majority by moving a confidence motion.
    • The Speaker of the Lok Sabha decides whether to accept the no-confidence motion or not.
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Evolution and History of the Indian Constitution Preamble of the Indian Constitution
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