Daily Current Affairs and GK | 7 September 2022
- 1. As per new research, Cancer-fighting viruses can boost the body's immune system.
- 2. Basilica of Bom Jesus church will remain closed for a month for restoration work.
- 3. India and Bangladesh have signed seven MoUs during Sheikh Hasina’s visit to New Delhi.
- 4. All-rounder Suresh Raina announced his retirement from all forms of cricket on 6 September.
- 5. Three Indian cities included in the UNESCO Global Network of Learning Cities.
- 6. Drug Controller General of India (DCGI) has approved India's first intra-nasal vaccine for COVID-19.
- 7. Around 4 lakh road accident cases were reported in 2021: NCRB Data
- 8. A short anti-TB regimen got global approval after a positive test result.
- 9. EAM S Jaishankar and Defense Minister Rajnath Singh are on a visit to Japan for the India-Japan 2+2 Ministerial Meeting from 7 September.
- 10. Government is planning to bring a new Model Prisons Act.
- 11. Allahabad High Court strike down two orders of the UP government, related to designating 17 OBC sub-castes as scheduled castes.
- 12. Government has issued Motor Vehicles Non-Transport Vehicles Visiting India Rules, 2022.
- 13. Minister of State Anupriya Patel laid the foundation stone of 'Chunar Logistics Park' in Mirzapur, UP.
- 14. Indian Army Chief General Manoj Pande is on a four-day official visit to Nepal from 5th-8th September.
- 15. 28th edition of the Status Report on India’s External Debt 2021-22 has been released by the Department of Economic Affairs.
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Topic: Biotechnology and Diseases
1. As per new research, Cancer-fighting viruses can boost the body's immune system.
- As per a new study published in the journal Cancer Cell, the body’s immune capacity against cancer can be increased by using oncolytic viruses.
- Oncolytic viruses (OVs) have the ability to kill cancer cells without harming normal cells.
- Research on oncolytic virotherapy was started in the 1960s. The latest study focused on the virus known as Myxoma.
- The study found that T-cells infected with the myxoma virus can lead to a type of cancer cell death.
- The study claims a synergy between T-cells and MYXV (myxoma virus) to boost solid tumour cell autosis for tumor clearance.
- Myxoma-equipped T-cells function well because they can also kill cancerous cells that are close to the target. This process is called bystander killing.
- The study found that immunotherapy combined with virotherapy has the potential to destroy “cold tumors”.
Topic: Art and Culture
2. Basilica of Bom Jesus church will remain closed for a month for restoration work.
- The Basilica of Bom Jesus is a Roman Catholic Church in Old Goa. From 5 September, it will be closed for visitors.
- Since July 2022, the Archeological Survey of India’s Chemical Branch, Mumbai, has been working on the restoration project.
- Basilica church has the mortal remains of St. Francis Xavier.
- Every year, the feast of St Francis Xavier is held in December, and thousands of visitors come to the feast.
- St. Francis Xavier was a co-founder of the Society of Jesus. He was involved in missionary activity in Portuguese India. He is known as the "Apostle of the Indies", "Apostle of the Far East", "Apostle of China" and "Apostle of Japan".
- Basilica of Bom Jesus:
- It is a UNESCO World Heritage site located in Goa.
- It is one of the oldest churches in India.
- It is one of India's finest examples of Baroque and Portuguese architecture.
- It is one of the Seven Wonders of Portuguese Origin in the World.
- The construction work of the Basilica of Bom Jesus church was completed in 1605.
3. India and Bangladesh have signed seven MoUs during Sheikh Hasina’s visit to New Delhi.
- India and Bangladesh signed MoUs after delegation-level talks between Prime Minister Narendra Modi and his counterpart Sheikh Hasina.
- The MoUs will benefit the southern parts of Assam in India and the Sylhet region in Bangladesh.
- The MoUs have been signed in the key areas of water resources, capacity building, railway, science, and technologies.
- The Ministry of Jal Shakti, Government of India, and the Ministry of Water Resources, Government of Bangladesh signed MoU on the withdrawal of water by India and Bangladesh from the Kushiyara River.
- The Ministry of Railways (Railway Board), Government of India and the Ministry of Railways, Government of Bangladesh, signed a pact for the training of Bangladesh Railway personnel in India.
- The National Judicial Academy, India, and the Supreme Court of Bangladesh signed an MoU on a training and capacity building Programme for Bangladesh Judicial Officers in India.
- CSIR, India, and Bangladesh Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (BCSIR), Bangladesh, signed an MoU on Scientific and Technological Cooperation.
- During the delegation-level talks, a Khulna-Darshana railway line link project railway line was also launched.
- Bangladesh is an important partner under India's 'neighbourhood first' policy.
4. All-rounder Suresh Raina announced his retirement from all forms of cricket on 6 September.
- Raina, also known as 'Mr IPL', had led India to victories on several occasions with his bowling, batting, and superb fielding skills.
- Earlier in 2020, Raina announced his retirement from international cricket.
- The left-handed batsman made his Test debut in 2010, ODI debut in 2005, and T20 in 2006.
- Raina was part of the 2011 World Cup winning team.
- In an international career spanning 13 years, Raina represented India in 18 Tests, 226 ODIs, and 78 T20 Internationals.
- He scored 5615 runs in 226 ODIs and 1605 runs in 78 T20Is for India.
- In IPL, he has played for Chennai Super Kings and Gujarat Lions. In 205 matches, he took 25 wickets and scored 5,528 runs.
(Source: News on AIR)
Topic: Art and Culture
5. Three Indian cities included in the UNESCO Global Network of Learning Cities.
- Telangana's Warangal and Kerala's Thrissur and Nilambur have joined the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization's (UNESCO) Global Network of Learning Cities (GNLC).
- Thrissur is known as cultural capital of Kerala. Nilambur is an eco-tourism destination in the Kerala. Warangal has a rich cultural heritage.
- They are included in recognition of their outstanding efforts to make lifelong learning a reality for all at the local level.
- They became the country's first entrant to the UNESCO Global Network of Learning Cities.
- According to UNESCO, 77 cities from 44 countries around the world have joined the UNESCO Global Network of Learning Cities.
- This network includes cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, Hamburg, Athens, Incheon, Bristol and Dublin.
- UNESCO stated that with the 77 new members the total number of cities within the UNESCO GNLC reached to 294 in 76 countries.
- UNESCO Global Network of Learning Cities:
- The UNESCO Global Network of Learning Cities is an international policy-oriented network of inspiration, know-how, and best practises.
- The UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL) coordinates UNESCO GNLC.
Topic: Biotechnology and Diseases
6. Drug Controller General of India (DCGI) has approved India's first intra-nasal vaccine for COVID-19.
- The COVID-19 vaccine "Bharat Biotech's iNCOVACC" is for restricted emergency use in people above 18 years of age.
- The Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO) has authorised Bharat Biotech's recombinant nasal vaccination.
- It is only the second nasal vaccine in the world to have received regulatory approval after the CanSino Biologics vaccine in China.
- iNCOVACC is a chimpanzee adenovirus vectored recombinant nasal vaccine. It has been specifically formulated to allow intra-nasal delivery of vaccine through nasal drops.
- The nasal delivery system has been designed and developed with low- and middle-income nations in consideration.
- Drugs Controller General of India (DCGI):
- It is a department of the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO).
- It approves licenses of various categories of drugs in India.
- Its headquarters is located in New Delhi.
- The Drug Controller General of India is Dr. V. G. Somani.
(Source: News on AIR)
Topic: Reports and Indices/Ranking
7. Around 4 lakh road accident cases were reported in 2021: NCRB Data
- NCRB has collected detailed data on traffic accidents in India. The data on ‘Traffic Accidents’ comprises Road Accidents, Railway Accidents, and Railway Crossing Accidents.
- As per the NCRB data, the number of ‘Traffic Accidents’ has increased from 3,68,828 in 2020 to 4,22,659 in 2021.
- There were 4,03,116 road accidents, 17,993 railway accidents, and 1,550 railway crossing accidents among these traffic accidents.
- The death rate in road accidents per thousand vehicles has also increased from 0.45 in 2020 to 0.53 in 2021.
- The maximum increase in ‘Traffic Accidents’ has been reported from Tamil Nadu (from 46,443 to 57,090), followed by Madhya Pradesh (from 43,360 to 49,493) and Uttar Pradesh (from 30,593 to 36,509).
- In 2021, 3,73,884 persons were injured and 1,73,860 died due to traffic accidents.
- The maximum number of deaths from ‘Traffic Accidents’ has been registered in Uttar Pradesh (24,711 deaths), followed by Tamil Nadu (16,685 deaths) and Maharashtra (16,446 deaths).
- In 2021, compared to the previous year, there were 18.8% more accidental deaths.
- The maximum number of traffic accidents occurred during 18:00 hrs – 21:00 hrs.
- Road accidents cases have increased from 3,54,796 in 2020 to 4,03,116 in 2021.
- The maximum number of road accidents have been caused by two-wheelers (69,240 deaths), followed by cars (23,531 deaths) and trucks/lorries (14,622 deaths).
- The following are the causes of road accident deaths in India in 2021:
- Over-speeding (55.9%)
- Dangerous/careless driving or overtaking (27.5%)
- Poor weather conditions
- Driving under Influence of Drug/Alcohol
- Mechanical defects in motor vehicles
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Topic: Biotechnology and Diseases
8. A short anti-TB regimen got global approval after a positive test result.
- A shorter six-month tuberculosis treatment regimen called BPaL, as compared to the usual 18-month protocol, has received scientific approval.
- Tests in multiple countries showed that it helped 84% to 94% of the sickest TB patients.
- BPaL consists of three newer antibiotics: bedaquiline, pretomanid, and linezolid.
- A new study published on September 1 in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) stated that the best dosage is linezolid at a dose of 600 mg daily for 26 weeks.
- Earlier this year, the WHO approved a regimen containing pretomanid for all types of drug-resistant TB.
- The BPAL trial began in Mumbai in August 2021. The 181 patients with XDR or pre-XDR TB in the NEJM study were examined.
- They were divided into four groups based on linezolid dosage – 1,200 mg for 26 weeks or 9 weeks and 600 mg for 26 weeks or 9 weeks.
- Each group had a high success rate of 84% to 93%.
9. EAM S Jaishankar and Defense Minister Rajnath Singh are on a visit to Japan for the India-Japan 2+2 Ministerial Meeting from 7 September.
- During their four-day visit, the Ministers will also participate in the Defence Ministerial Meeting and Foreign Ministers' Strategic Dialogue.
- The Special Strategic and Global Partnership between India and Japan is based on the common ideals of democracy, freedom, and respect for the rule of law.
- During the visit, the two parties will explore additional ways to enhance their collaboration.
- The 2+2 Dialogue gives an opportunity to exchange views related to important regional and global issues.
- Apart from Japan, India also takes part in 2+2 Dialogue with US, Russia and Australia.
(Source: News on Air)
Topic: National News
10. Government is planning to bring a new Model Prisons Act.
- In the next six months, the government will introduce a new Model Prisons Act by amending the existing law.
- Union Home Minister Amit Shah urged all state governments to adopt the Model Prison Manual brought in 2016.
- Union Home Minister Amit Shah inaugurated the 6th All India Prison Duty Meet.
- At present, only 11 states and Union Territories have adopted the Manual.
- Amit Shah said that the states should provide video conferencing facilities in every district jail. He also said that issues like overcrowding in jails must be resolved to improve the conditions of jails in India.
- The new jail manual will also deal with controlling gangs inside the jail.
- The modernization of jails is necessary to equip them with technology and to improve the security of the Jails.
- The Model Prison Manual of 2016 aims to bring uniformity in laws, rules, and regulations governing the administration of prisons.
Topic: Indian Polity
11. Allahabad High Court strike down two orders of the UP government, related to designating 17 OBC sub-castes as scheduled castes.
- The castes which the UP government had intended to include in the SC category were - Majhwar, Kahar, Kashyap, Kevat, Mallah, Nishad, Kumhar, Prajapati, Dheevar, Bind, Bhar, Rajbhar, Dhiman, Batham, Turha, Godia, Manjhi and Machua.
- The Uttar Pradesh government included these castes in the SC category by an order dated 22nd December 2016.
- The Allahabad High Court gave its judgement while hearing a PIL filed by the Dr B R Ambedkar Granthalaya Evam Jan Kalyan, Gorakhpur.
- Allahabad High Court says that the members of the Caste Majhwar should be issued the necessary certificates after verification of their status.
- As per Article 341 of the constitution, any change to the list of Scheduled Castes can only be made by the Parliament through law.
- The Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes are defined in Articles 341 and 342 of the Indian Constitution with regard to each State and Union Territory.
Topic: National News
12. Government has issued Motor Vehicles Non-Transport Vehicles Visiting India Rules, 2022.
- The Ministry of Road Transport and Highways has issued Motor Vehicles Non-Transport Vehicles Visiting India Rules, 2022 through a notification.
- These rules will regulate the movement of Non-Transport (Personal) vehicles registered in other countries on entering Indian territory.
- As per the new rules vehicle(s) must carry the registration certificate, driving license or international driving permit, valid insurance policy, and pollution under control certificate during their stay.
- As per the guidelines, Motor vehicles registered in any country other than India cannot transport local passengers and goods within the territory of India.
- Motor vehicles registered in any other country have to follow the rules and regulations made under the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 of India.
- Motor Vehicle Act 1988 governs all elements of road transport vehicles.
Topic: State News/ Uttar Pradesh
13. Minister of State Anupriya Patel laid the foundation stone of 'Chunar Logistics Park' in Mirzapur, UP.
- The 'Chunar Logistics Park' will pave the path for the development of the Chunar region.
- Initially, a facility for around 400 containers will be developed and 2000 square meter Godowns will be built for storage and handling of the cargo.
- The Logistics Park will be expanded in a phased manner. It will generate employment for the local people and will fulfil the business needs of Eastern UP and adjoining areas.
- It will play a key role in promoting rail freight transportation and reducing logistics costs and transit time. It will give a boost to the local carpet and handicraft industry.
- The Carpet and handicraft industries of Chunar, Mirzapur and surrounding areas are internationally known for their uniqueness and quality.
- The 'Chunar Logistics Park' will have many features including around-the-clock security, CCTV cameras, and state-of-the-art container handling equipment.
- Multi-Modal Logistics Park (MMLPs) is a key component of the Gati Shakti National Master Plan.
Topic: India and its neighbours
14. Indian Army Chief General Manoj Pande is on a four-day official visit to Nepal from 5th-8th September.
- It is the first visit of General Manoj Pande to Nepal as Indian Army Chief.
- Indian Army Chief and Nepal's Chief of the Army Staff General Prabhu Ram Sharma discussed many issues including ways to strengthen bilateral Defence Cooperation.
- General Manoj Pande handed over lethal military aid including Artillery Equipment, Mine Protected Vehicles, Medical Stores and Horses to Nepal Army.
- This visit is an opportunity for both countries to deepen bilateral defence ties and strengthen cooperation in areas of mutual interest.
- During the visit, President of Nepal Bidhya Devi Bhandari conferred the honorary rank of General of Nepal Army to General Manoj Pande.
- India – Nepal relations:
- India and Nepal share common cultural and civilisational ties.
- Both countries established diplomatic relations on 17 June 1947.
- India gives the highest priority to its relationship with Nepal in accordance with its ‘Neighborhood First’ and ‘Act East’ policies.
- India is the largest trading partner of Nepal.
- The Boundary Working Group (BWG) was established in 2014 for the technical works related to the Nepal-India boundary.
(Source: News on AIR)
Topic: Reports and Indices/ Rankings
15. 28th edition of the Status Report on India’s External Debt 2021-22 has been released by the Department of Economic Affairs.
- The External Debt Management Unit in the Department of Economic Affairs under the Ministry of Finance released Status Report on India’s External debt.
- The external debt has increased by 8.2% from US$ 573.7 billon (end-March 2021) to US$ 620.7 billion (end-March 2022).
- The largest part of the external debt is denominated in the US dollar (53.2%) followed by Indian rupee-denominated debt (31.2%).
- External debt as a ratio to GDP has decreased marginally from 21.2% to 19.9% during FY2021-22.
- Foreign currency reserves as a ratio to external debt was 97.8 percent as compared to 100.6 percent a year ago.
- Long-term debt is about 80.4% of the total external debt which stood at US$ 499.1 billion while short-term debt is 19.6% of the total debt.
- 90% of the total external debt is due to-
- Commercial borrowings
- NRIs deposits
- Short-term trade credit
- Multilateral loans
- Commercial lenders are the biggest creditors accounting for 36.7% of the debt, followed by NRI depositors (22.4%), short-term trade creditors (19.6%), and multilateral lenders (11.7%).
- 28th edition of Status Report on India’s External Debt 2021-22
(Source: RBI and Ministry of Finance)
- During end-March 2021 and end-March 2022, NRI deposits contracted marginally while Commercial Borrowings, short-term trade credit and multilateral loans expanded.
- The sovereign external debt (SED) has increased by 17.1% to US$ 130.7 billion which shows the additional allocation of Special Drawing Rights (SDR) by the IMF. SDR increased to US$ 22.9 billion (end-March 2022).
- Sovereign External Debt (SED) comprises external assistance (from multilateral and bilateral sources) on government accounts, defence debt, investment in treasury bills/government securities by FPIs, foreign central banks and international institutions, and SDR allocations by the IMF.
- Non-sovereign external debt is estimated at US$ 490.0 billion and CBs, NRI deposits, and short-term trade credit account for 95% of the non-sovereign debt.
- The debt service ratio has declined to 5.2% due to buoyancy in current receipts and a decline in debt service payments.
- Debt service ratio is measured by the proportion of gross debt service payments (both principal and interest) to external current receipts. If the ratio is low, it indicates that a country's international finances are healthier.
- Comparing with other countries, India’s external debt is modest and stands at the 23rd position globally.
- In terms of various debt vulnerability indicators, India’s sustainability was better than Low and Middle-Income countries.
Personality in News :
133rd birth anniversary of Sarat Chandra Bose: 6 September 2022
- He was a patriot, freedom fighter, politician, barrister and journalist.
- He was the elder brother of Subhash Chandra Bose.
- He established a news agency named Orient Press Agency in 1929.
- He was born in Cuttack in 1889.
- He joined Indian National Congress in 1918.
- In 1928, he became a member of Bengal Legislative Council.
- He gave up the legal practice to join the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930.
- He led the Congress in 1946 as he became a member of Congress's high command.
- He was the first to protest against the partition of Bengal and Punjab while he was a minister in the interim government and resigned from his post.
- In Aug 1947, he formed the Socialist Republican Party and in 1949, he formed the United Socialist Organisation to bring all socialist forces at a single place.
- He started a newspaper "The Nation" in the later 1940s.